Incidence of Major Clinical Reproductive Health Problems of Dairy Cows at Bako Livestock Research Farm over a Two-Year Period (September 2008-December 2010)
A prospective follow up study was carried out on 372 dairy cows at Bako Agricultural research center between September 2008 and December 2010 to determine the incidence of reproductive problems and associated risk factors in the cows. The animals were continuously followed from insemination/mating until 45 days postpartum for occurrence of clinical reproductive problems. Data were collected during farm visits by observation and clinical examination of animals. The cumulative incidence of clinically observed major reproductive problems was 35.2% (131/372). No statistically detectable effect (p>0.05) of breed was shown on the occurrence of clinical reproductive problems evaluated. In addition, number of parities, body condition score (BCS), age of dams, calf sex and service type were not found to have a significant influence on the occurrence of reproductive problems in the study farm (p>0.05). The most common reproductive problems recorded in the present study were retained fetal membrane (8.3%), dystocia (6.7%), abortion (5.9%), uterine infections (5.6%) and stillbirths (4.8%). In this study, the incidence of dystocia, uterine infections, stillbirths and repeat breeding were more common in crossbred cows whereas abortion was more common in local cows but the effect of these factors was not significant (p>0.05). This study revealed that nearly one cow out of every three cows encountered at least one type of clinical reproductive problems indicating the widespread occurrence of the problems among dairy cows at Bako Agricultural Research Center. However, considered plausible factors such as breed, parity number, body condition score (BCS), age of dams, calf sex and service type had no significant influence on the occurrence of reproductive problems in the study farm indicating that some other factors are responsible for precipitating the conditions. It is, therefore, recommended that other factors that precipitate the occurrence of the problems in the farm should be investigated and appropriate interventions implemented in order to minimize the occurrence of these problems and associated losses in the farm.
Incidence of Major Clinical Reproductive Health Problems of Dairy Cows at Bako Livestock Research Farm over a Two-Year Period (September 2008-December 2010), Animal and Veterinary Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 158-165.
Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N. (2013). Effects of main reproductive and health problems on the performance of dairy cows: a review. Span. J. Agric. Res. 11(3): 718-735.
Bekana, M., Ekman, T. and Kindhal, H. (1994a). Ultrasonography of Bovine postpartum cows with retained fetal membranes. J. Vet. Med. A. 41: 653-662.
Bekana, M., Jonsson, P., Kindhal, H. (1997). Bacterial isolates with retained fetal membranes and subsequent ovarian activity in cattle. Vet. Rec., 140: 232-234.
Mukasa-Mugerwa, E., Azage, T., Tafese, M. and Teklu, Y. (1991).Reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus (Zebu) cows under artificial insemination. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 24: 63-72.
Esslemont RJ, Kossaibati, MA. (1997). Culling in 50 dairy herds in England. Vet. Rec. 140: 36-39.
Seegers, H., Beaudeau, F., Flourichon, C. and Bareille, N. (1998). Reasons for culling in French Holstein cows. Prev. Vet. Med. 36: 257-271.
Stevenson, MA. and Lean, IJ. (1998). Descriptive epidemiological study on culling and deaths in eight dairy herds. Australian Vet. J. 76: 482-488.
Asfaw, C., Gebreyohanes, G., Kebede, G., Kebede, K. and Tola, A. (2000). Reproductive performance and lactation yield of F1 (Bos indicus x Bos Taurus) animals at Bako. In: Proceedings of 7th Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP), held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 26-27 May 1999: 386-396.
Gebreyohannes, G. and Kebede, M. (2006). Herd life and lifetime calf crop production in relation to age at first calving in indigenous and crossbred cows at Bako, Ethiopia. Eth. J. Anim. Prod. 6(1): 55-65.
Haftu, B. and Gashaw, A. (2009). Major Reproductive Health Problems of Dairy Cows in and around Bako, West Ethiopia. Eth. J. Anim. Prod. 9(1): 89-98.
Kebede, M., Greyling, JPC., Schwalbach LMJ. and Duguma, G. (2006). Effect of season and supplementation on semen and testicular characteristics of Horro bulls in sub-humid environmental condition in Ethiopia. Eth. J. Anim. Prod. 6(1): 19-32.
Fikru, A. (1988). Need for soil survey studies. pp. 15-20. In: Desta Beyene (ed.). Proceedings of soil science research review in Ethiopia. Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), 11-14 February 1986, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Anon (1996). Omo-Gibe River Basin Integrated Development Master Plan Study. Final Report. Vol. Vll. Land Resource Survey. B1. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Ministry of Water Resources. Richard Woodroofe and Associates with Marcott, UK. 202.
Sahlemedhin, S. and Ahmed, A. (1983). Phosphorus sorption characteristics of some Ethiopian soils. Eth. J. Agri. Sci. 5: 1-12.
Gebreyohannes, G., Tegegne, A., Diedhiou, ML. and Hegde, BP. (2003). Reproduction efficiency of zebu and crossbred cows as measured by the inter-estrus and inter-service intervals at Bako. Proceedings of the 10th annual conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, August 21-23, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Alberro, M., and Hailemariam, S. (1982). The indigenous cattle of Ethiopia, Part I. World Anim. Rev. 41: 2-11.
Ayana, T., Tafess, K., Mamo, G., Sisay, T. and Ameni, G. (2013). Isolation and molecular characterization of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria from skin positive reactors and pathological lesions of cattle at Bako, Western Ethiopia. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 7(20): 2190-2197.
Peter, AT. (2000). Abortions in dairy cows: New insights and economic impact. Adv. Dairy Technol. 12: 233-244.
Mee, JF. (2008a). Prevalence and risk factors for dystocia in dairy cattle: a review. Vet. J. 176(1): 93-101.
Richard, W. (1993). Dairying. Tropical Agriculturalist, 1st ed. Macmillan Press London. 43-48.
Kelton, DF., Lissemore, KD. and Martin, ER. (1998). Recommendations for recording and calculating the incidence of selected clinical diseases of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 81: 2502-2509.
Clark, GM. (1982). Statistics and experimental design. A series of student text in contemporary biology. 2nd ed. Edward Arnold, London. 48-62.
Gizaw, M., Bekana, M., Abayneh, T. (2007). Major reproductive health problems in smallholder dairy production in and around Nazareth town, Central Ethiopia. Vet. Online Int. J. Vet. Med. http://www.fourmilab.ch/rpkp/experiments/analysis.
Gashaw, A., Worku, F. and Mulugeta, S. (2011). Assessment of smallholder dairy production and their reproductive health problems in Jimma Town, South-Western Ethiopia. Int. J. App. Res. 9: 80-86.
Tesfaye, D. and Shamble, A. (2013). Reproductive health problems of cows under different management systems in Kombolcha, Northeast Ethiopia. Adv. Biolo. Res. 7 (3): 104-108, 2013.
Esheti, G. and Moges, N. (2014). Major Reproductive Health Disorders in Cross Breed Dairy Cows in Ada’a District, East Shoa, Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria. 13 (4): 444-449.
Benti, D. and Zewdie, W. (2014). Major reproductive health problems of indigenous Borena cows in Ethiopia. J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res. 1(4): 182-188.
Kassa, T. and Lema, M. (2005). Study on major reproductive problems of Zebu and Friesian x Zebu crossbred cows under small-scale dairy farms in Ada’a District, Oromia, Ethiopia. Eth. Vet. J. 9 (1): 109-122.
Haile, A., Kassa, T., Mihret, M. and Asfaw, Y. (2010). Major reproductive disorders in cross breed dairy cow under smallholding in Addis Ababa milk shed. World J. Agri. Sci. 6(4): 412-418.
Bitew, M. and Prased, S. (2011). Study on Major Reproductive Health Problems in Indigenous and Cross Breed Cows in and around Bedelle, South West Ethiopia. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 10(6):723-727.
Dinka, H. (2013). Major reproductive disorders of dairy cows in and around Asella town, Central Ethiopia. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health. 5(4): 113-117.
Mureda, E. and Mekuriaw, Z. (2008). Characteristics and constraints of crossbred dairy cattle production in lowland areas of Eastern Ethiopia. Live. Res. Rural Dev. 20(4).
Haile, A., Tsegaye, Y. and Tesfaye, N. (2014). Assessment of Major Reproductive Disorders of Dairy Cattle in Urban and Per Urban Area of Hosanna, Southern Ethiopia. Anim. Vet. Sc. 2(5): 135-141.
Tekelye, B., Kasali, OB. and Tsion, A. (1991). Reproductive problems in crossbred cattle in central Ethiopia. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 26: 41-49.
Fielding and Matthewman (2004). Tropical cattle management In: Bovine medicine, diseases and husbandry of cattle. 2nd ed. (editors. Andrews AH, Blowey RW, Boyd H, and Eddy RG), Blackwell publishing company, Oxford, UK. 68-81.
Hebert, AB., Bouchard, E., Dutremblay D. and Lefebure, R. (2011). Effects of reproductive disorder and parity on repeat breeder status and culling of dairy cows. Canad. J. Vet. Res. 75(2): 147-151.
Erb, HW. and Martin, SW. (1980). Interrelationship between production and reproductive disease in Holstein cows. J. Diary. Sci. 63: 1911-1917.
Gaines, JD. (1989). The role of record analysis in evaluating sub fertile dairy herds. Vet. Med. 84: 532-543.
Correa, MT., Curtis, CR., Erb, H. N., Screlett, JM. and Smith, RD. (1990). An ecological risk factor for postpartum disorders of Holstein-Friesian cows form thirty-two New York farms. J. Dairy Sci. 73: 1515-1524.
Mamo, T. (2004). Study on major postpartum reproductive problems of smallholder dairy cows in and around Debre Zeit. DVM Thesis, AAU, Ethiopia.
Lemma, A. and Kebede, S. (2011). The effect of mating system and herd size on reproductive performance of dairy cows in market oriented urban dairy farms in and around Addis Ababa. Revue Méd. Vét. 162(11): 526-530.
Arthur, GH., Noakes DE., Parkinson TJ. and England, GCW. (2001). Arthur's Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 8th ed. WB Saunders Ltd., Philadelphia. 864.
Mee, JF. (1991). The incidence of retained fetal membranes on nine dairy research farms over a ten-year period (1978–1987). Irish Vet. J. 44: 48–52.
Birhanu, A., Harlow, CR., Gidey, G., Tadesse, D., Desta, G., Gugssa, T., and Riley, S. (2015). Assessment of reproductive performance and problems in crossbred (Holstein Friesian X Zebu) dairy cattle in and around Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia. Anim. Vet. Sci. 3(3).
Radostits, OM., Leslie, KE. and Fetrow, J. (1994). Maintenance of reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle. In Herd Health: Food Animal Production Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 141-158.
Tigre, W. (2004). Major clinical reproductive health problems of dairy cows in and around Holleta. DVM thesis. Addis Ababa University, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.
Berglund, B., Steinbock, L. and Elvander, M. (2003). Causes of stillbirth and time of death in Swedish Holstein calves examined post mortem. Acta Vet. Scand.44(3): 111-120.
Abuom, TO., Njenga, MJ., Wabacha, JK., Tsuma, VT. and Gitau, GK. (2012). Incidence and risk factors of periparturient conditions in smallholder dairy cattle herds Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya. Eth. Vet. J. 16(2): 85-102.