Serological Study of African Swine Fever in Traditional Pig Farms in Chad
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 149-152
Received: Jun. 30, 2015; Accepted: Jul. 15, 2015; Published: Oct. 14, 2015
Views 4105      Downloads 156
Bidjeh Kebkiba, Livestock Research Institute for Development, Ndjamena, Chad
Ban-Bo Bebanto Antipas, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences (FEAS), University of Ndjamena, Ndjamena, Chad
Nadjilem Digamtar, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences (FEAS), University of Ndjamena, Ndjamena, Chad
Tchari Doungous, Livestock Research Institute for Development, Ndjamena, Chad
Golwa Dinza, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences (FEAS), University of Ndjamena, Ndjamena, Chad
Maho Adnelie jeanne, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences (FEAS), University of Ndjamena, Ndjamena, Chad
Article Tools
Follow on us
African swine fever (ASF) is an acute, highly contagious animal disease, affecting pigs and wild boars, warthogs, bush pigs and ticks (Ornithodoros), who are the likely vector. Its agent is a large double-stranded DNA virus of the genus Asfarvirus, the only representative of Asfarviridae family. Described for the first time in 1921 in East Africa (Kenya) by Montgomery, ASF has settled in the Iberian Peninsula. Since 1960, ASF has spread considerably in sub-Saharan Africa where it is endemic. ASF has emerged in Chad for the first time in October 2010 in the city of Bongor, capital of the region of Mayo-Kebbi-East, which is located about 250 km from Ndjamena. The city borders with northern Cameroon where the disease was reported in May 2010. The disease was introduced into the country from the far north in the Department of Mayo Danaye, Cameroon. Since 2010-2011, suspicions have become rare or no observed. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the presence or absence of ASF virus circulation in Chad in order to clarify the epidemiological situation of the disease in the country. To do this, a serological survey was conducted on different sites. The choice of these sites was based on the history of the disease in the country, where there has actually outbreaks of disease and on stamping out importance achieved during ASF episode of 2010-2011. A total of 275 Sera and 17 bloods on filter papers were collected and analyzed by indirect ELISA for antibodies directed to ASF virus. Out of 275 sera analyzed, 13 (4.72%) have had antibodies directed to ASF virus. No sample taken from filter papers was positive vis-à-vis ASF virus. The study identified 4.72% animals carrying ASF virus. Given these results, we can say that ASF virus still circulates in some areas of the country. The areas where sera were positive should be admitted to the extent control of ASF by implementing the strategy of stamping out.It would also be preferable to undertake another large-scale serological study coupled with active surveillance to show that indeed there is no circulation of ASF virus in the country.
Pigs, ELISA, Serology, African Swine Fever, Antibodies, Viruses, Serum
To cite this article
Bidjeh Kebkiba, Ban-Bo Bebanto Antipas, Nadjilem Digamtar, Tchari Doungous, Golwa Dinza, Maho Adnelie jeanne, Serological Study of African Swine Fever in Traditional Pig Farms in Chad, Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 149-152. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20150306.11
E. C. ANDERSON, G. H. HUTCHING, N. MUKARATI, et al. African swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease. Vet. Microbiology, 1998, 62 (1), 1-15
AU-IBAR Joint AU-IBAR/ FAO African swine fever control strategy. 2013, 20p.
B. A. BAN-BO, O. A. IDRISS, C. D. SQUARZONI Control of African Swine Fever (ASF) in traditional pig farms in Chad, Journal of Animal & Plant Science, 2012, 15, 3, 2261-2266.
B. A. BAN-BO, O. A. IDRISS, Alhaji Mahamat SOULEYMANE. Dynamics of African swine fever in Chad. Science and Technology, Natural Sciences and Agronomy, 2010-2012, 32, (1-2), 61-72.
A. D. BASTOS, M. L. PENRITH, C CRUCIERE, J. L. EDRICH, G. H. HUTCHING, F. ROGER, et al. Genotyping field strains of African swine fever virus by partial p72 gene characterisation. Arch. Virol. 2003, 148, 693–706
S. C. G. BLOME, C. GABRIEL, M. BEER. Pathogenesis of African swine fever in domestic pigs and European wild boar. Virus Res. 2013, 173:122–130.
CONTINI, A., COSSU, P., RUTILI, D. et al. African swine fever in Sardinia. In: Wilkinson, P. J., African swine fever. Proceedings of CEC/FAO research seminar, Sassari, Sardinia, 23-25 sept. 1981. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, 1982, 1-6.
FAO (ML Penrith, et al.). Preparation of contingency plans against african swine fever, Rome, 2011, 84p.
W. A. GEERING, M. L. PENRITH, D. NYAKAHUMA. Manual on the preparation of Africa swine fever contingency plans. Animal Health Manual. FAO, Rome. 2001, 11, 74p.
T. LEWIS, L. ZSAK, T. G. BURRAGE, Z. LU, G. F. KUTISH, J. G. NEILAN, et al. An African swine fever virus ERV1-ALR homologue, 9GL, affects virion maturation and viral growth in macrophages and viral virulence in swine. J. Virol. 2000; 74, 1275–85.
A. S. MALOGOLOVKIN, G. BURMAKINA, I. TITOV, A. SEREDA, A. G. E. BARYSHNIKOVA, D. KOLBASOV. Comparative analysis of African Swine Fever Virus Genotypes and Serogroups. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015, Vol. 21, No. 2, 312-315.
R. E. MONTGOMERY. A form of swine fever occurring in British East Africa (Kenya) colony. J. Comp. Pathol. 1921, 34: 159-191, 243-262.
OIE WAHID. World Animal Health Information database (WAHID) interface. htt // / wahis / php page = home.2014 public
W. PLOWRIGHT, G. R. THOMSON, J. A. NESER, African swine fever. In: COETZER, J. A. W., THOMSON, G. R., TUSTIN, R. C. Infectious Diseases of livestock with special references to southern Africa. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1994, vol.1, 568-599.
J. V. M. SANCHEZ. Early detection and emergency plans for ASF. OIE Conf., 2010, 149-158.
D. H. SCHLAFER, J. W. McVICAR, C. A. MEBUS. African swine fever in convalescent sows: Subsequent pregnancy and the effect of colostral antibody on challenge inoculation of their pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res., 1984, 45, 1361-1366.
G. R. THOMSON. The epidemiology of African swine fever: The role of free-living hosts in Africa. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 1985, 52, 201-209.
Veterinary Services Department (DSV), Ministry of Livestock and Water, Chad. Mission report on compensation for pig farmers, 201, 6p.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186