Sheep Infection by Haemonchus Species: Effect on Haematocrit and Evaluation of the FAMACHA© Method in Arsi Negele District, Oromia, Ethiopia
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages: 74-79
Received: Mar. 16, 2015;
Accepted: Mar. 29, 2015;
Published: Apr. 14, 2015
Views 4935 Downloads 199
Guash Abay, Abergelle Agricultural Research Center, Abyi-Adi, Ethiopia
Tilaye Demissie, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Amene Fekadu, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Teshale Teklue, Mekelle Agricultural Research Center, Mekelle, Ethiopia
Infection with Haemonchus species in sheep at Arsi- Negele district was determined by differential third-stage larvae and the objective was to evaluate the validation of FAMACHA© chart in the diagnosis of Haemonchus infection. The animal’s anemia level was determined by using the FAMACHA© method and their corresponding PCV (packed cell volume) were determined by haematocrit centrifugation method. The color of the ocular membrane of all animals was scored 1 to 5 using the FAMACHA© card and blood samples were collected from each animal for determination of PCV. Fecal samples also collected from sampled animals tested for fecal egg counts (FEC), and fecal culture for identification of third stage larvae of Haemonchus species. All sheep studied were negative for Fasciola and were not heavily infested by lice and ticks. A highly significant negative correlations [(R-square = 0.28, Coef. = -0.78); (R-square= 0.58, Coef= -0.34)] was observed between Haemonchus larvae and PCV, and PCV and eye color respectively. Positive correlations [(R-square= 0.19, Coef. = 1.53); (R-square=0.274, Coef= 0.05)] was observed between FAMACHA© score and Haemonchus infection, and FAMACHA© score and egg per gram of faces (EPG) respectively. The PCV of the Haemonchus positive sheep had a strong negative correlation with the EPG (R-square=0.53, Coef= -0.023). We evaluated the validity of FAMACHA© eye scoring to measure severely infested sheep and got strong correlation among FAMACHA© eye scoring, PCV and Fecal culture positivity. As a conclusion the FAMACHA© anaemia scoring guide can be used to treat only severely anemic sheep and hence reduce mass treatment and this reduce chance of drug resistance.
Sheep Infection by Haemonchus Species: Effect on Haematocrit and Evaluation of the FAMACHA© Method in Arsi Negele District, Oromia, Ethiopia, Animal and Veterinary Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2015, pp. 74-79.
CSA, 2013. Central statistics for livestock population in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Kumsa B. and Wossene A. 2006. Abomasal nematodes of small ruminants of Ogaden region, Eastern Ethiopia. Prevalence, worm burden and species composition, Revue Med. Vet, 157:27-32.
Demelash B., Yilma J. and Hassen C. 2006. Ovine helminthosis is major health constraints to productivity of sheep in Ethiopia. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia, pp. 65-90.
Chaudary F.R., Khan M.F. and Qayyum M. 2007. Prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in naturally infected small ruminants grazing in the Potohar area of Pakistan. Pakistan vet. J, 27:73-79.
Woldemariam D.L. 2005. Nematode Prevalence, helminth management practices and anthelmintic resistance in small ruminants in the mid rift valley of Ethiopia. University of Pretoria, Faculty of veterinary sciences, Pretoria, South Africa, Pp.2-3, 29, 60.
Arsi-Negele beureau of agriculture and rural development, 2013.
Thrusfield M. 2008. Sampling in Veterinary epidemiology. 2nd ed, Blackwell science, London. Pp.198
Hansen J. and Perry B. 1994. The epidemiology, diagnosis and control of helminth parasites of ruminants. 2nd ed, Nairobi, Kenya: ILRAD (international laboratory for research on animal diseases).
Hendrix C.M. and Robinson E. 2012. Diagnostic parasitology for veterinary technicians. 4th ed, Mosby, USA, Pp.54.
MAFF (Minstry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), 1997. Manual of Veterinary parasitological laboratory techniques. Tech.Bull, NO. 18, Her Majesty’s stationery office, London, Pp.129.
Zeryhun T. 2011. Helminthosis of sheep and goats in and around Haramaya, Southeastern Ethiopia. Journal of Vet. Med. and Animal Health, 4:48-55.
Burke J.M., Kaplan R.M., Miller J.E., Terrill T.H., Getz W.R., Mobini S., Valencia E., Williams M.J., Williamson L.H. and Vatta A.F. 2007. Accuracy of the FAMACHA© system for on-farm use by sheep and goat producers in the southeastern United States. Vet. Parasitol, 147:89-95.
Chandrawathani P., Yusoff N., Wan L.C., Ham A. and Waller P.J. 2004. Total anthelmintic failure to control nematode parasites of small ruminants on government breeding farms in Sabah East Malaysia. Vet. Res. Comm, 28: 1–11.
Kaplan R.M., Burke J.M., Terrill T.H., Miller J.E., Getz W.R., Mobini S., Valencia E., Williams M.G., Williamson L.H., Larsen M. and Vatta A.F. 2004. Validation of the FAMACH© eye color chart for detecting clinical anemia in sheep and goats on farms in the Southern United States. Vet. Parasitol, 123: 105-120.
Kumsa B. 2004. Study on Ogaden small ruminant haemonchosis: morphological characterization and susceptibility to Albendazole and Tetramisole. Msc thesis, school of veterinary medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Menkir S. 2007. Helminth Parasites of Sheep and Goats in Eastern Ethiopia: Epidemiology, and Anthelmintic Resistance and its Management. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
Scheuerle M. 2009. Anthelmintic resistance of Haemonchus contortus and the FAMACHA© method as a tool to delay the development of anthelmintic resistance. 1st ed. vvb laufersweiler verlag, pp.4.
Saddiqi H. 2010. Evaluation of some indigenous breeds of sheep for natural resistance against Haemonchus contortus infection. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Veterinary science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.
VanWyk J.A. 2001. Refugia – overlooked as perhaps the most potent factor concerning the development of anthelmintic resistance. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res, 68: 55-67.