Quality Constraints in the Market Chains for Export of Small Ruminants from Afar Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Areas
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages: 51-57
Received: Jan. 16, 2015; Accepted: Feb. 2, 2015; Published: Feb. 26, 2015
Views 2952      Downloads 305
Gezahegn Alemayehu, College of Veterinary Medicine, Samara University, Samara, Ethiopia
Birhanu Hailu, College of Veterinary Medicine, Samara University, Samara, Ethiopia
Nuru Seid, College of Veterinary Medicine, Samara University, Samara, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
The study was conducted in four districts of Afar Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Area to determine quality constraints in the market chains for export of Afar’s small ruminants. A total of 291 producers, 8 traders and 4 exporters were interviewed with separate semi-structured questionnaires. The result of study indicated that small ruminant made by far the greatest contribution to livestock-based livelihoods in all study districts. About 72.2% of pastoralist offers shoat for sale to meet their urgent needs at any time during the year. Majority (51.9%) of the producers have no specific target to sale their shoat. Quality and other criteria required by importers were known only by 7.6% of the producers, while majority of them (92.4%) did not know quality and other criteria required by importer. Even though sheep were most demanded by exporters, sheep accounts only 20% from total shoat presented for sale. Only 14.4% of the producers offer adult male for sale which were fit for export. Along the market chain pre-purchase inspection and selection for quality assurance and certification for live shoat were none existent. In all Afar’s livestock markets there is no objective standard for selling and buying animals. The result of this study showed that small ruminants supplied to the markets by pastoralist do not meet the quality attributes required by export markets. Appropriate extension service that will respond to the peculiar needs of export markets, especially on the aspect of providing information and knowledge on the desired shoat characteristics and quality requirements of importing countries should be provided for the producers.
Afar, Export, Market, Small Ruminants, Quality
To cite this article
Gezahegn Alemayehu, Birhanu Hailu, Nuru Seid, Quality Constraints in the Market Chains for Export of Small Ruminants from Afar Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Areas, Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2015, pp. 51-57. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20150302.14
CSA 2013. Agricultural Sample Survey, 2012/13 (2005 E.C.), Volume II: Report on Livestock and livestock characteristics (Private peasant holdings). Statistical Bulletin 570. Addis Ababa: Central Statistical Agency (CSA), Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
Metaferia, F., Cherenet, T., Gelan, A., Abnet, F., Tesfay, A., Ali, J.A., Gulilat, W. 2011. A Review to Improve Estimation of Livestock Contribution to the National GDP. Ministry of Finance and Economic Development and Ministry of Agriculture, Addia Ababa, Ethiopia.
Behnke, R. 2010. The Contribution of Livestock to the Economies of IGAD Member States: Study Findings, Application of the Methodology in Ethiopia and Recommendations for Further Work. IGAD LPI Working Paper 02-10. Great Wolford, UK: Odessa Centre, IGAD Livestock Policy Initiative. In.
Hailemariam, T., Legese, G., Alemu, D.,and Negassa, A. 2009. Market Structure and Function for Live Animal and Meat Exports in Some Selected Areas of Ethiopia. Research Report 79. EIAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
SOS 2013. Pastoralism In Ethiopia: Its Total Economic Values and Development Challenges. SOS SAHEL ETHIOPIA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Devendra, C. 2001. Small ruminants: imperative for productivity enhancement improved livelihood and rural growth. A review. Asian-Aust. J.Anim.sci. 14(10)1483-1496.
Jahnke, H.E. 1982. Livestock Production Systems and Livestock Development in Tropical Africa. Kieler Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk.
IGAD 2013. The Contribution of Livestock to the Ethiopian Economy. IGAD Center for Pastoral Areas & Livestock Development (ICPALD). Policy Brief No: ICPALD 5/CLE/8/2013
Legese, G., Hailemariam, T., Alemu, D.,and Negassa, A. 2008. Live animal and meat export value chains in prioritized areas of Ethiopia: Constraints and opportunities for enhancing meat exports. ILRI Discussion Paper 12. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya.
FAO 2005. Addressing marketing and processing constraints that inhibit agri-food export. AGS bulletin 160, FAO, Rome.
Abdulahi, M. 2003. Pastoral Development Strategies/ Policies in Ethiopia: A Critical Analysis and Evaluation," Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Pastoral Development in Ethiopia, December 23-24, 2003, Addis Ababa. Pastoral Form Ethiopia: Addis Ababa
Jost C.C, Nzietchueng S. , Kihu S. Bett, B. , Njogu G , Swai Emmanuel, and Mariner J. C. 2010. Epidemiological Assessment of the Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Kenya and Tanzania in 2006 and 2007. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 83(Suppl 2) 65–72.
Schwartz, S. and Schwartz, H.J. 1985. Nomadic pastoralism in Kenya: still a viable production system? Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 24 (1): 5-21.
Abdullahi, A.M. 1990. Pastoral Production Systems in Africa: A Study of Nomadic Household Economy and Livestock Marketing in Central Somalia. Farming Systems and Resource Economics in the Tropics, No.8. Kiel, Germany.
Sieff, D.F. 1999. The effects of wealth on livestock dynamics among the Datoga pastoralists of Tanzania. Agricultural Systems, 59: 1-25.
Gizaw S., Tegegne A., Gebremedhin B. and Hoekstra D. 2010. Sheep and goat production and marketing systems in Ethiopia: Characteristics and strategies for improvement. Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) of Ethiopian Farmers Project, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia . Working Paper No. 23
Ayele G, A. Jabbar M., Teklewold H., Mulugeta E. and Kebed G. 2006. Seasonal and inter-market differences in prices of small ruminants in Ethiopia. Journal of Food Products Marketing (USA), 12(4): 59-77.
Rota A. and Sperandini S. 2009. Livestock and pastoralists. Livestock Thematic Papers Tools for project design. International Fund for Agricultural Development, Rome, Italy.
Sebsibe A. 2011. Export requirements for meat and live small ruminants. How can development agents assist producers to improve small ruminant export? Technical Bulletin No.47
Williams T.O., Spycher B. and Okike I. 2006. Improving livestock marketing and intra-regional trade in West Africa: Determining appropriate economic incentives and policy framework. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 122 pp.
Farmer, E. 2010. End Market Analysis of Ethiopian Livestock and Meat. A Desk Study Micro report 164
Delil F., Asfaw Y. and Gebreegziabher B. 2012. Prevalence of antibodies to peste des petits ruminants virus before and during outbreaks of the disease in Awash Fentale district, Afar, Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod, 44:1329–1330
Regassa F. Netsere M., Tsertse T. 2010. Sero-Prevalence of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Goat at Selected Woredas of Afar Region. Ethiop. Vet. J., 14(1), 83-89
Zewdie S., 2009. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR). Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program (ESGPIP). Technical Bulletin No.20
Dawit, T. 2006. Seroprevalence study of peste des petits ruminants in Gewane district, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia. Unpublished DVM thesis, Addis Ababa University
Aklilu, Y. 2008. Livestock Marketing in Kenya and Ethiopia: A Review of Policies and Practice. Feinstein International Center, Addis Ababa
Gekara O, Leite-Browning ML, (2012). Biosecurity Practices for Small Beef Cattle Producers. A Series for Small-Scale Producers and Hobby Owners.
Anderson David E. 2010. Survey of Biosecurity Practices Utilized by Veterinarians Working with Farm Animal Species. The Online Journal of Rural Research and Policy 5.7: 1-13.
Van Schaik G, Dijkhuizen AA, Benedictus G, Barkema HW, Koole JL 1998. Exploratory study on the economic value of a closed farming system on Dutch dairy farms. Veterinary Record 142: 240–242.
Van Schaik G., Nielen M., Dijkhuizen, A.A. 2001. An economic model for on-farm decision support of management to prevent infectious disease introduction into dairy farms. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 51: 289–305.
Lawrence M., Riccardo C., Ibrahim O.O., Samuel O.O., Jabbar M., Negassa A. and Amos O. 2008. – A rapid appraisal of institutions supporting Somali livestock export. Improvement and Diversification of Somali Livestock Trade and Marketing Project. Discussion Paper No. 14. Improving market opportunities. International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi.
Negassa A., Costagli R., Matete G., Jabbar M., Oyieke S.O., Abdulle M.H. and Omore A. 2008. Towards improving livestock export marketing support services in the Somali context: survey findings and implications. Improvement And Diversification Of Somali Livestock Trade And Marketing Project. Discussion Paper No. 13. Improving market opportunities. International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186