Analysis of Clinical Manifestation of Newcastle Disease in Traditional Poultry of Chad
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages: 5-9
Received: Dec. 25, 2013;
Published: Feb. 20, 2014
Views 3165 Downloads 159
BAN-BO Bebanto Antipas, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences - University of N'Djamena
BIDJEH Kebkiba, Research Institute of Livestock Development
NADJILEM Digamtar, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences - University of N'Djamena
Alhaji Mahamat Souleymane, Office of Veterinary Services - Epidemiosupervision Network – OVS
Andarawous Ballah Tina, Institute of Agro-sylvo pastorals sciences
Since its discovery in 1926, the virus of Newcastle disease (NDV) has been well described by several authors. But the control of this disease remains today a topical issue. It causes economic losses in industrialized and developing countries. The clinical manifestation of NDV differs from one species to another. This article places a state of clinical manifestation of the virus of Newcastle disease in traditional avian population, raised in the same breeding conditions. That avian population has been made up of chickens, ducks, guinea fowl and pigeons. The clinical manifestation of NDV has been observed by species, age and in epidemiological units (EpUn). The choice of EpUn has been done randomly. A total of 372 EpUn with a workforce of 13608 volatile have been observed. Young people aged at least 6 months have been 51.5% , 5.6%, 0.4% and 1.3% of the total, for chickens, ducks, guinea fowl and pigeons respectively. According to this order, adults over 6 months represented 28%, 5.4%, 4.8% and 3%. The clinical manifestation of the NDV has been observed in all domestic poultry species. Mortality varied between 26 and 99% in chickens; 17 and 75% in ducks; 8 and 100% in guinea fowls, and 11 and 100% among pigeons. Young volatiles have been more sensitive to NDV than adults. Mortality varied between 33 and 99% in young chickens, 21 and 75% in young ducks; 22 and 100% in young guinea fowl; 18 and 100% among young pigeons. In adults the rate varied respectively between 26 and 78%; 17 and 47%; 8 and 26%, 11 and 73% in the same species. Among this population of young volatiles, ducklings have been less sensitive than other young. Maternal antibodies seem to persist beyond a month and a half, while the chicks aged a month could present the clinical manifestations of the disease. Animal concentration, climatic changes, socio-economic activities of man and other emergence of ND factors seem to play an important role in the clinical manifestation of NDV from traditional domestic poultry. Knowledge of the clinical manifestation of this disease among the traditional bird population is one of the essential elements of its control.
BAN-BO Bebanto Antipas,
Alhaji Mahamat Souleymane,
Andarawous Ballah Tina,
Analysis of Clinical Manifestation of Newcastle Disease in Traditional Poultry of Chad, Animal and Veterinary Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2014, pp. 5-9.
D.J. Alexander, Newcastle disease. Brit. Poult. Sci. 2001, vol. 42, pp. 5-22.
D.J. Alexander, Newcastle disease, other avian paramyxoviruses and pneumovirus infectious, in: Disease of poultry, 11th ed. Iowa State University Press Ames, 2003, pp. 63-87.
B.A. Ban-bo, Particularités du processus de la manifestation de la maladie de Newcastle au Tchad. Thèse de doctorat PhD. Université Russe de l’Amitié des Peuples en Russie (URAP), Moscou, 2009, 152pp + annexes.
B.A. Ban-bo, K. Bidjeh, L.Y. Mopaté, Epidemiology of Newcastle disease and its economic impact in chad. Euro. J. Exp. Bio. 2012, vol. 2 (6) pp. 2286-2292
B.A. Ban-bo, K. Bidjeh, D. Nadjilem, Facteurs favorisant l’apparition de la maladie de Newcastle au Tchad. J. Appl. Biosci. 2013, vol. 70, pp. 5591-5598
B.Y. Birman, I.V. Nasonov, Situation épidémiologique dans le monde et la question de biosécurité des fermes en Biélorussie. Epidémiologie, immunologie, pharmacologie et assainissement. 2005, pp. 2-4
K.N. Grouzdev, Questions vétérinaires des fermes industrielles en Russie. In 1er congrès international des vétérinaires sur l’aviculture. Moscou, 2005, pp. 1-5
E.F. Guèye, Family poultry research and development in low-income food-deficit countries: approaches and prospects. Outlook Agric. 2002, vol. 31(1) pp. 13-21.
D.A. Higgins, Nine disease outbreaks associated with myxoviruses among ducks in Hong Kong. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 1971, Vol. 3, pp. 232-240.
A. Maho, N.D. Ndeledje, L.Y. Mopaté, K.Ganda, La maladie de Newcastle au sud du Tchad : période de pic épidémique et impact de la vaccination. Rev. Sci. Off. Int. Epiz. 2004, vol. 23 (3), pp. 777-782
O.F. Maminiaina, M. Koko, J. Ravanomana, S.J. Rakotonindrina, Epidémiologie de la maladie de Newcastle en aviculture villageoise à Madagascar. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz, 2007, vol. 26 (3) pp. 691-700.
M.A. Mayo, Virus taxonomy, Houston 2002. Arch. Virol., vol. 147, pp. 1071-1076.
L.Y. Mopaté, Revue du secteur avicole, Projet CHD/OSRO/602/EC, 2010.
M.O. Otim, H. Christensen, G.M. Mukiibi, M.A. Bisgaard, Preliminary study of the role of ducks in the transmission of Newcastle disease virus to in-contact rural free-range chickens. Trop. Anim Health Prod. 2006, vol. 3, pp. 285-289.
B. Rima, D.J. Alexander, M.A. Billeter, P.L. Collins, D.W. Kingsbury, M.A. Lipkind, Y. Nagai, C.Orvell, C.R. Pringle, & V. Ter Meulen,. Family paramyxoviridae. In virus taxonomy. Sixth report of the international committee on the taxonomy of viruses (F.A. Murphy, C.M. Fauquet, D.H. Bishop, S.A. Ghabrial, A.W. Jarvis, G.P. Martelli, M.A. Mayo & M.D. Summers edit.). Springer-Verlag, Vienne & New York, 2002, pp. 268-274
M. Sylla, B. Traoré, S. Sidibé, S. Keita, F.C. Diallo, B. Koné, A. Ballo, M. Sangaré, N’G. Koné, Epidémiologie de la maladie de Newcastle en milieu rural au Mali, Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays trop. 2003, vol. 56, (1-2) pp.7-12.
Xiaoyuan Yuan, Youling Wang, Jinxing Yang, Huaiying Xu, Yuxia Zhang, Zhuoming Qin, Hongbin Ai and Jinbao Wang. Genetic and biological characterizations of a Newcastle disease virus from swine in china. Virology Journal 2012, vol. 9, pp.129.