Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities in the Leaf, Stem and Fruit Fractions of Basella Alba and Basella Rubra
The overlapping nutritional and nutraceutical benefits of green leafy vegetables provides a better support for the well-being of human. This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical components of the methanol extracts from selected under-utilised green leafy vegetables (Basella alba and Basella rubra). The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extracts were measured using 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power, the antimicrobial activities were evaluated using the agar diffusion assay. Basella plant showed good fibre content up to 21.73±0.37%. The phenolics content ranged between 0.4 and 5.07mg/g GAE (Garlic Acid Equivalent) with Basella alba recording the highest value of 5.07mg/g GAE, while the flavonoids content of basella plant ranged between 4.00 and 9.87mg/gCAE (Catechin Equivalent). The radical scavenging antioxidants activities (DPPH) of Basella plant was more noticed in the leaves fraction with 55.32% while the Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was in the range of 0.33 and 3.30mg/g and the seed fraction of Basella alba had the highest FRAP at 3.30mg/g. Basella plant extracts showed moderate antimicrobial action against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 500ppm (minimum inhibition concentration). Based on the results of the work reported herein, Basella plants can be said to be a good source of basic nutrients, bioactive compounds and natural antioxidants.
Gabriel Olaniran Adegoke,
Olaoluwa Ayodele Ojo,
Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities in the Leaf, Stem and Fruit Fractions of Basella Alba and Basella Rubra, Plant.
Vol. 5, No. 5,
2017, pp. 73-79.
Steimez, K. A and Potter, J. D (1996). Vegetables, fruits and cancer prevention: a review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 96: 1027–1039.
Namrata, K. L., Ghosh, D., Dwivedi, S. C. and Singh, B. (2011). Wild edible plants of Uttarakhand Himalaya: A potential nutraceutical Source. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants; 5(6): 670-684.
Kharb, S. and Veena. S. (2004). Nutriceuticals in health and disease prevention. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 19(1): 50-53.
Ebadi, M. (2007). Pharmacodynamic basis of herbal medicine. 2nd edition. Boca Raton: 34-43.
Soetan, K. O. (2008). Pharmacological and other beneficial effects of antinutritional factors in plants. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(25): 4713-4721.
Prakash, D, Singh, B. N, Upadhyay G. (2007). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of phenols from onion (Allium cepa). Food Chemistry journal, 102: 1389-1393.
Nostro, A., Germarno, M. P., D’Angelo V., Marino, A, and Canatelli, M. A. (2000). Extraction methods and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plant antimicrobial.
Artizzu, N., Bonsignore, L., Cottiglia, F. and Loy, G. (1995). Studies of the diuretic and antimicrobial activity of Cynodon dactylon essencial oil, 66: 174-175.
Abukutsa-Onyago, M. A. (2003). The role of African indigenous vegetables in poverty alleviation in Kenya. Proceeding of the first PROTAInternational Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 23-25.
Eifediyi, K., Mensah J. K., Ohaju-Obodo J. O., Okoli R. I. (2008). Phytochemical, nutritional and medicinal properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo people of Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7: 2304 -2309.
Chai, C. C., Teo, G. K., Lau, C. Y. and Powoven, A. M. A. (2008). Conservation and sustainable utilization of indigenous vegetables of Sarawak. In: Agro-biodiversity in Malaysia, Kuala Lupur, Malaysia: 42-55.
Singleton, V. L, Orthofer, R, Lamuela-Raventos, R. M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymology. 299, 152-178.
Zhishen, J., Mengcheng, T. and Jianming, W. (1999). The determination of flavonoid content in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Journal of food chemistry, 6: 555-559.
AOAC (2000). Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemist. EUA.
Lee, H. S. and Castle, W. S. 2001. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry. 49: 877−882.
Ursini F., Maiorino M., Morazzoni P., Roveri A., Pifferi G., (1994). A novel antioxidant flavonoid affecting molecular mechanism of cellular activation. Radical biological medical; 16, 547-553.
Pulido R, Bravo L, and Saura-Calixto F (2000). Antioxidant of dietary polyphenols as determined by a modified Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay. Journal of Agric. Food Chemistry, 46: 3396-3402.
Hugo, W. B. and Russell, A. D. (2004). Laboratory evaluation of antimicrobial agents. In: Pharmaceutical Microbiology (eds Stephen P. D., Norman, A. H. and Sean P. G.), Blackwell Science, Oxford; 6th edn. 229–255.
Adetutu, A. O, Sinbad, O. and Oyewo, E. B. (2013). Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties and Antibacterial Activities of Five West-African Green Leafy Vegetables. Canadian Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 7(2): 2357-2362.
Podsędek, A. (2007). Natural antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of Brassica vegetables: A review. 40: 1.
Siddhuraju, P. and Becker, K. (2003). Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. Journal of Agric. Food Chemistry, 51: 2144–2155.
Enujiugha, V. N., Oluwole, T. F., Talabi, J. Y. and Okunlola, A. I. (2012). Evaluation of Selected Phytochemicals and Bioactive Components in Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) and Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) Leaves. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 3(1): 7-13.
Hertog, M. G. L., Feskens, E. J. M., Hollman, P. C. H., Katan J. B. and Kromhout D. (1993). Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study, 342: 1007-1011.
Middleton, E. J., Kandaswami, C. and Theoharides, T. (2000). The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease and cancer. Journal of Pharmacological Review, 52: 673–751.
Wang, F. D, Chen, Y. Y, Chen, T. L and Liu, C. Y. (2008). Risk factors and mortality in patients with nosocomial Staphylococcus_aureus bacteremia. American Journal of Infect Control, Volume 36 (2), pages 118-122.
Katiyar, S., Elmets, C. A., and Katiyar, S. K., (2007). Green tea and skin cancer: photoimmunology, angiogenesis and DNA repair. Journal of Nutrition Biochemistry; 18, 287–296.
Prakash D., Dhakarey, R. and Mishra, A. (2004). Carotenoids: the phytochemicals of nutraceutical importance. Journal of Agriculture Biochemistry, 17: 1-8.
Botterweck, A., Verhagen, H, Goldbohm, R., Kleinjans, J, and van den Brandt, P. (2000). Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk: Results from analyses in the Netherlands cohort study. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 38 (7): 599-605.
Olajire, A. A. and Azeez, L. (2011). Total antioxidant activity, phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents of Nigerian vegetables. African Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2(2): 022-029.
Li, H. B, Wong, C. C., Cheng, K. W. and Chen, F. (2008). Antioxidant properties in vitro and total phenolic content in methanol extracts from medicinal plants. LWT, 41: 385-390.
Soengas, P., Cartea M. E., Francisco M. and Sotelo T., Velasco P. (2012). New insights into the antioxidant activity of Brassica crops. Food Chemistry journal, 134: 725–733.
Okwu, D., E. and Josiah, C. (2006). Evaluation of the chemical composition of two Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology 5 (4): 257-361.
Aligiannis, N., Kalpoutzakis, E., Mitaku, S. and Chinou, I. B. (2001). Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of two Origanum species. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 49 (9): 4168-4170.
Banso, A. (2009). Phytochemical and antibacterial investigation of bark extracts of Acacia nilotica. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3(2): 082-085.