Clonal Structure of Two Wild Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) Populations Inferred from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprints
Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pages: 8-14
Received: Feb. 26, 2015;
Accepted: Mar. 13, 2015;
Published: Mar. 18, 2015
Views 2953 Downloads 166
Kazunari Nomura, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan
Tamae Harada, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan
Nozomi Saotome, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan
Minami Kubota, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan
Masato Katori, Suigo-Sawara Aquatic Botanical Garden, Ogishima, Katori, Chiba 287-0801, Japan
The lotus Nelumbo nucifera often forms dense populations at the margins of lakes and ponds. Many aquatic plant species such as N. nucifera are characterized by the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually, which can affect the genetic diversity of populations growing in different types of environments. We compared the clonal diversities of two natural lotus populations in Japan. Diversity was quantified by DNA fingerprinting of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in leaves sampled across each population. The DNA fingerprints revealed different amounts of diversity in each population. In 162 samples from Lake Kasumigaura, where lotus has grown continuously for many years, 35 AFLP patterns were detected. One particular clone was distributed widely, suggesting that growth of seed-derived plants was inhibited because of the superior competitive ability of rhizomes, resulting in low genetic diversity within the population. In 214 samples from Uchi-numa Pond in Miyagi Prefecture, where the lotus population was totally destroyed by heavy rains in 1998 and is now recovering, 213 different AFLP profiles were detected. The spatial distance between samples from Uchi-numa Pond was correlated with the genetic distance. These results suggest that, in lotus, sexual reproduction is favored when rapidly varying water level damages the population, because small seedlings are better able to survive in a low-density population. In contrast, vegetative reproduction is favored when environmental conditions are stable.
Clonal Structure of Two Wild Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) Populations Inferred from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprints, Plant.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2015, pp. 8-14.
Kunii, H. and M. Maeda 1982. Seasonal and long-term changes in surface cover of aquatic plants in a shallow pond, Ojaga-ike, Chiba, Japan. Hydrobiologia 87: 45-55.
Sastroutomo, S.S. 1982. Summer biomass of aquatic macrophytes in relation to sediment characteristics in Lake Aino-mura, Miyagi. Japan. J. Ecol. 32: 45-55.
Nohara, S. and M. Kimura 1997. Growth characteristics of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. In response to water depth and flooding. Ecol. Res. 12: 11-20.
Carpenter, S.R. and Lodge, D.M. 1986. Effects of submersed macrophytes on ecosystem processes. Aqu. Bot. 26: 341-370.
Eriksson, O. 1993. Dynamics of genets of clonal plants. Trend. Ecol. Evo. 8: 313-316.
Han, Y.C., Teng, C.Z., Wahiti, G.R., Zhou, M.Q., Hu ZL and Y.C. Song 2009. Mating system and genetic diversity in natural populations of Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae) detected by ISSR markers. Plant Syst. Evo. 277: 13-20.
Katori, M., K. Nomura and K. Yoneda. 2002. Propagation of flowering lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) by rhizome straps, without enlarged rhizomes. Jpn. J. Trop. Agr. 46: 195-197.
Xue, J., Zhuo, L. and S. Zhou 2006. Genetic diversity and geographic pattern of wild lotus (Nelunbo nucifera) in Heilongjiang Province. Chin. Sci. Bul. 51: 421-432.
Araki, S. and Kadono, Y. 2003. Restricted seed contribution and clonal dominance in a free-floating aquatic plant Utricularia australis R.Br. in southwestern Japan. Ecological Research. 18: 599-609.
Barrett, S.C.H., Eckert, C.G. and Husbund, B. C. 1993. Evolutionary processes in aquatic plant populations. Aquatic Botany. 44: 105-145.
Kameyama, Y. and M. Ohara 2006. Genetic structure in aquatic bladderworts: Clonal propagation and hybrid perpetuation. Ann. Bot. 98: 1017-1024.
Pollux, B.J.A., M.D.E.Jong, A. Steegh, E. Verbruggen, and J.M.Van Groenendael 2007. Reproductive strategy, clonal structure and genetic diversity in populations of the aquatic macrophyte Sparganium. Mol. Ecol. 16: 313-325.
Nohara, S. and T. Tsuchiya 1990. Effects of water level fluctuation on the growth of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. in Kasumigaura, Japan. Ecol. Res. 5: 237-252.
Murray, M.G. and W.F. Thompson 1980. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 8: 4321-4325.
Vos, P., Hogers, R., Bleeker, M., Reijans, M., Lee, T. van de, Hornes, M., Frijters, A., Pot, J., Peleman, J. Kuiper, M. and M. Zabeau 1995. AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res. 23: 4407-4414.
Nei, M. and W.H. Li 1979. Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 5269-5273.
Felsenstein, J. 2005. PHYLIP (Phylogeny Inference Package) version 3.6. Distributed by the author. Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle.
Ellstrand N.C. and M.L. Roose 1987. Patterns of genotypic diversity in clonal plant species. Amer. J. Bot. 74: 123-131.
Widén, B.S., Cronberg, N. and M. Widén 1994. Genotypic diversity, molecular markers and spatial distribution of genets in clonal plants. A literature survey. Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 29: 245-263.
Doken, M.E. and Eckert, C.G. 2001. Severely reduced sexual reproduction in northern populations of a clonal plant, Decodon verticillatus (Lythraceae). J. Ecol. 89: 339-350.
Olivieri, I., Michalaskis, Y. and P.H. Gouyon 1995. Metapopulation genetics and the evolution of dispersal. Amer. Nat. 146: 202-228.
Husband, B.C. and S.C.H. Barrett 1996. A metapopulation perspective in plant population biology. J. Ecol. 84: 461-469.
Yang, M., Y. Han, L. Xu, J. Zhao and Y. Liu 2012. Comparative analysis og genetic diversity of lotus (Nelumbo) using SSR and SRAP markers. Scientia Horticulturae 142: 185-195.
Jacquemyn, H., Brys, R., Honnay, O., Hermy, M. and I. Roldan-Ruiz 2005. Local forest environment largely affects below-ground growth, clonal diversity and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the temperate deciduous forest herb Paris quadrifolia. Mol. Ecol. 14: 4479-4488.
Sun, S., Gao, X. and Y. Cai 2001. Variations in sexual and asexual reproduction of Scirpus mariqueter along an elevational gradient. Ecol. Res. 16: 263-274.
Newell, S.J. and E.J. Tramer 1978. Reproductive strategies in herbaceous plant communities during succession. Ecology 59: 228-234.
Loehle, C. 1987. Partitioning of reproductive effort in clonal plants: a benefit-cost model. Oikos 49: 199-208.
Kays, S. and J.L. Harper 1974. The regulation of plant and tiller density in a grass sward. J. Ecol. 62: 97-105.
Hartnett, D.C. and F.A. Bazzaz 1985. The genet and ramet population dynamics of Solidago canadensis in an abandoned field. J. Ecol. 73: 407-413.
Barrett, J.P. and Silander, J.A. 1992. Seedling recruitment limitation in white clover (Trifolium repens; Leguminoseae). Amer. J. Bot. 79: 643-649.
Zhang, L.Q. and X.K. Yong 1992. Dynamics of ramet density and biomass in Scirpus mariqueter. Acta Phytoecol. Sinica 16: 315-325.
Eckert, C.G., Lui, K., Bronson, K., Corradini, P. and Bruneau, A. 2003. Population genetic consequences of extreme variation in sexual and clonal reproduction in an aquatic plant. Mol. Ecol. 12: 331-344.