Contribution of Parkland Agroforestry Practices to the Rural Community Livelihood and Its Management in Southern Ethiopia
Humanities and Social Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 4, July 2020, Pages: 104-111
Received: May 30, 2020; Accepted: Jun. 15, 2020; Published: Jul. 4, 2020
Views 62      Downloads 48
Authors
Bayisa Bussa, Department of Natural Resources Management, Bule Hora University, Bule Hora, Ethiopia
Kotola Feleke, Department of Natural Resources Management, Bule Hora University, Bule Hora, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Parkland agroforestry which is a system practiced for many local populations is very important for food security, microclimate amelioration, income generation and environmental protection, and is found at different corners of the world, primarily in the semi-arid and sub-humid zones of Africa. It is reported that agroforestry practice is an aged practice in the Ethiopian farming systems of which parkland trees comprise the large part of agricultural landscapes and it is also the most dominant agroforestry practice in the semi-arid and sub-humid zones of Ethiopia. This study was conducted on farmers’ parkland Agroforestry practice in Burka Ebela of Bule Hora District Southern Ethiopia which was purposely selected. The objective of this study was to assess contribution of parkland Agroforestry practices to the rural livelihood community. A total of 90 respondents were selected in a systematic sample way from total households of 888 in the study area based on formula used. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result obtained from the survey showed that, 11 tree species as parkland tree were identified. From those identified tree species the most preferred trees by farmers are: Accia Abyssinica, Accia Albida, Cordia Africana, Croton Macrostachyus Eucalyptus, FicusVasta, Millettia Ferruginea, Podocarpus Falcatus, Rhamnus Priniode and Ricicus Commonis and community used those trees for different purpose such as; for food security, microclimate amelioration, economic benefits, environmental protection, household energy, household utensils, cultural values, traditional medicines and fodder. Challenge to parkland Agroforestry practice in the study area were the exotic tree expansion, plant diseases transmission from old trees to young trees, small land size and lack of replanting. Moreover, these trees are facing challenges like: expansion of cash crops through removal of the parkland trees from the farm area. Even though common management of parkland agroforestry system on the study area was thinning and prunings, more people do not management parkland tree well.
Keywords
Parkland, Agro Forestry, Parkland Management, Soil Fertility
To cite this article
Bayisa Bussa, Kotola Feleke, Contribution of Parkland Agroforestry Practices to the Rural Community Livelihood and Its Management in Southern Ethiopia, Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2020, pp. 104-111. doi: 10.11648/j.hss.20200804.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Zewde A. and Nebiyou M. Parkland Agroforestry Practices on Biodiversity Conservation- A Review, 2019.
[2]
Raj, J. A., & Lal, B. S. Agroforestry Theory and Practices. Jodhpur: Scientific Publishers, 2014.
[3]
Munroe, J. W., & Isaac, M. E. N-2-Fixing Trees and the Transfer of Fixed-N for Sustainable Agroforestry, 2014.
[4]
Boshier, D. H.; Gordon, J. E.; Barrance, A. J. Prospects for Agro-Ecosystems: Meso american Dry-Forest. Biodiversity Docs/Training/FGR_TG/additional_materials, 2006.
[5]
Nair PKR, Gordon AM, Mosquera-Losada MR, Agroforestry In: Jorgensen SE, Fath BD. (Eds.), Ecol. Eng., Encyclopedia Ecol. Vol. 1. Elsevier, Oxford, U.K., 2008; pp. 101-10.
[6]
Scales BR, Marsden SJ. Biodiversity in small-scale tropical Agroforestry. A review of species richness and abundance shifts and the factors influencing them. Environ. Conserv., 2008; 35 (2): 160–72.
[7]
Kassa H, Gebrehiwet K, Yamoah C. Balanites aegyptiaca, a potential tree for parkland agroforestry systems with sorghum in Northern Ethiopia. J Soil Sci Environ Manage, 2010; 1: 107-114.
[8]
Boffa, J. M. Agroforestry Parklands in Sub-Saharan Africa. FAO Conservation Guide, Rome, 1999.
[9]
Schelas J, Greenberg R. Forest Patches in Tropical Landscapes. J Appl Ecol, 1996; 34: 544.
[10]
Garrity, D. P.; Akinnifesi, F. K.; Ajayi, O. C.; Weldesemayat, S. G.; Mowo, J. G.; Kalinganire, A.; Larwanou, M.; Bayala, J. Evergreen Agriculture: A robust approach to sustainable food security in Africa. Food Secur. 2010, 2, 197–214.
[11]
CBD/Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Global Biodiversity Outlook 4. Montreal, 2014; pp. 155.
[12]
Lemage B, Legesse A. Management and socioeconomic determinants of woody species diversity in parkland Agroforestry in Tembaro District, Southern Ethiopia. Biodivers. Int. J. 2018; 2 (5): 456‒62.
[13]
Negash, M. Trees Management and Livelihoods in Gedeo’s Agroforests, Ethiopia, 2007.
[14]
Abebe, T. Diversity in Homegraden Agroforestry Systems of Southern Ethiopia. PhD Dissertation, Wageningen: Wageningen Agricultural University, 2005. –p. 143.
[15]
Muleta D. Assefa F. Nemomissa S. Socioeconomic benefits of shade trees in coffee production systems in Bonga and Yayu Hurumu districts, southwestern Ethiopia, 2011.
[16]
Gelaw, A., Singh, B., & Lal, R. Soil Quality Indices for Evaluating Smallholder Agricultural Land Uses in Northern Ethiopia. Sustainability, 2015.-p. 7, 2322-2337.
[17]
Mamo, D., & Asfaw, Z. Status of Selected Soil Properties under Croton Macrostachyus Tree at Gemechis District, West Hararghe Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture, and Healthcare, 2017. –p. 7, 8.
[18]
Bayala, J., Sanou, J., Teklehaimanot, Z., Kalinganire, A., & Ouédraogo, S. J. Parklands for Buffering Climate Risk and Sustaining Agricultural Production, 2014.
[19]
Atangana, A., Khasa, D., Chang, S., & Degrande, A. Tropical Agroforestry. Dordrecht: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7723-1
[20]
Tsegu, E. The role of Faidherbia albida tree species in parkland agroforestry and its management in Ethiopia, 2019.
[21]
Mulat Y. Indigenous Knowledge Practices in Soil Conservation at Konso People, South western Ethiopia. J AGR ENVIRON SCI 2 (2): 2013. P. 1, 9.
[22]
Raj, A. Role of Agroforestry in Climate Change Mitigation, 2016.
[23]
Nikiema A. Agroforestry parkland species diversity: Uses and Management in Semi-Arid West Africa (Burkina Faso), Wageningen University, Wageningen, 2005.
[24]
Gindaba, J., Rozanov, A., & Negash, L. Trees on Farms and Their Contribution to Soil Fertility Parameters in Bedessa, Eastern Ethiopia. Biology and Fertility, 2005. -P. 42, 66-71.
[25]
Badege, B., & Abdu, A. Agroforestry and Community Forestry for Rehabilitation of Degraded Watersheds in the Ethiopian Highlands, 2003.
[26]
FAO. Advancing Agroforestry on the Policy Agenda: A Guide for Decision-Makers. Agroforestry Working Paper No. 1. Rome, 2013. –p. 37.
[27]
Boffa, J. M. West African Agroforestry Parklands: Keys to Conservation and Sustainable Management. Unasylva, 2000. –p. 51, 11-17.
[28]
Bongers, G. Dynamics in People-Tree Interactions in Farm Fields; Farmers’ Perspectives in Meskan District, Ethiopia, 2010.
[29]
Mulhollem, J. Agroforestry Systems May Play Vital Role in Mitigating Climate Change, 2018.
[30]
Shiferaw, B., & Holden, S. T. Policy Instruments for Sustainable Land Management: The Case of Highland Smallholders in Ethiopia, 2000.
[31]
Dejene, A. Integrated Natural Resources Management to Enhance Food Security, 2003.
[32]
Hadgu, K. M., Garrity, D. P., Mowo, J., & Sileshi, G. Current Extent of Evergreen Agriculture and Prospects for Improving Food Security, 2009.
[33]
Albert Nikeima. Agroforestry parkland species diversity, use and management in semi-arid-wast Africa, Burkina faso. 2005.
[34]
Zubair, M., & Garforth, C. Farm-Level Tree Planting in Pakistan: The Role of Farmers Perceptions and Attitudes. Agroforestry Systems, 2006. –p. 66, 217-229.
[35]
Roothaert, R., & Franzel, S. Farmers’ Preferences and Use of Local Fodder Trees and Shrubs in Kenya, 2001.
[36]
FDRE. Forest Development, Conservation, and Utilization Proclamation. Proclamation No. 1065/2018, Addis Ababa: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 2018.
[37]
Arnold, J. E. M., & Dewees, P. A. Tree Management in Farmer Strategies: Responses to Agricultural Intensification. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
[38]
Nair, P. K. R. An Introduction to Agroforestry. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publisher, 1993.
[39]
Schuren, S. H. G., & Snelder, D. J. Tree Growing on Farms in Northeast Luzon, 2008.
[40]
RWEDP. Integrating woodfuel production into agroforestry extention programs in South East Asia. RWEDP Report No. 21. FAO. April 1995, West Java, Indonesia.
[41]
De Jong, W. Tree and Forest Management in the Floodplains of the Peruvian Amazon, 2001.
[42]
Bannister, M. E., & Nair, P. K. R. Agroforestry Adoption in Haiti: The Importance of Household and Farm Characteristics. Agroforestry Systems, 2003. P. 57, 149-157.
[43]
Tengnas B. Agroforestry extension manual for Kenya. Nairobi: International Centre for Research in Agroforestry. Nairobi, Kenya. 1994; P. 188.
[44]
Kilewe AM, Kealey KM, Kebaara KX. Agroforestry Development in Kenya Proceedings of the Second Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry held in Nairobi, Kenya. 1988.
[45]
Kindeya, G. Dryland Agroforestry Strategy for Ethiopia. In The Drylands Agroforestry Workshop (p. 26). Nairobi: ICRAF Headquarters, 2004.
[46]
Gizachew, Z., Tesfaye, A., & Wassie, H. Ficusvasta L. in Parkland and Agroforestry Practices of Hawassa Zuria District, Southern Ethiopia, 2015.
[47]
Guyassa, E., & Raj, A. J. Assessment of Biodiversity in Cropland Agroforestry and Its Role in Livelihood Development in Dryland Area, 2013.
[48]
Bayala, J., Roméo, B. H., & Sanou, J. Competition and Facilitation Related Factors Impacts on Crop Performance in an Agroforestry Parkland System in Burkina Faso, 2013.
[49]
Bekele-Tesemma, A. (Ed.). Profitable Agroforestry Innovations for Eastern Africa, 2007a.
[50]
Solomon E. Parkland Agroforestry of Ethiopia; Key to Production, Productivity, Biodiversity Conservation and Climate Change Mitigation, a Review, Open Journal of Forestry, 2018.
[51]
Bule Hora Agriculture office. Unpublished report from wereda office, 2019.
[52]
Bule Hora Burka Ebela kebele office. Unpublished report, 2019.
[53]
Gene, B. climate condition in Bule Hora area. Ethiopia, 2015.
[54]
Singh, Ajay S. and Masuku, Micah B. Sampling techniques & determination of sample size in applied statistics research: an overview, International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, Vol. II, United Kingdom, 2014.
[55]
Yemane. T. Formula of confidence interval, 1967.
[56]
Endale, Y., Abayneh, D., Mekuria, A., & Catherine, M. Farmland Tree Species Diversity and Spatial Distribution Pattern in Semi-Arid East Shewa, Ethiopia. Perceived Multifunctionality of Agroforestry Trees, 2017.
[57]
Asfaw, Z., & Ågren, G. I. Farmers’ Local Knowledge and Topsoil Properties of Agroforestry Practices in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. Agroforestry Systems, 2007. -p. 71, 35-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-007-9087-0.
[58]
Worede, M. Ethiopian in Situ Conservation. The in Situ Approach (pp. 290-301). London, 1997.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186