Fencing and Forest Conservation: Attitudes of Local People Living Adjacent to Eastern Slopes of Mount Kenya
This study was carried out to assess local people attitudes on fencing and conservation management of Mount Kenya Forest. A random sampling technique was used in administering semi structured questionnaires to 100 households living adjacent to the forest. Secondary sources and key informants provided additional information through interviews. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and creation of themes. From the findings 57% of the respondents were male and 43% were female. Age distribution revealed that 6% of the respondents were between the ages of 21-30 years; 30% between the ages of 31-40 years; 24% between the ages of 41-50 years; 19% were aged 60 and above. The results showed that local communities are deriving myriad benefits from the forest which include; fuel wood, timber, honey, fruits, medicinal plants and water for community irrigation projects. Findings shows that seventy six percent (76%) of the respondents’ supported forest conservation while 24% supported de-gazettement of forest to create farmlands. Fence installation has led to reduced cases of crop and destruction of property and death/injury of livestock. The results further revealed that forest illegal activities have significantly declined, citing few cases of illegal harvesting of hardwood trees. Trust relationships between the local communities and other stakeholders participating in forest conservation and management activities have also been enhanced. It is recommended that to improve local communities’ attitude towards conservation there is need to increase the flow of both direct and indirect benefits to the local communities thus creating strong partnerships for effective conservation and management of the forest.
Mugambi David Mbuba,
Fencing and Forest Conservation: Attitudes of Local People Living Adjacent to Eastern Slopes of Mount Kenya, International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2019, pp. 1-6.
Arjunan, M., Holmes, C., Puyravaud, J. P., & Davidar, P. (2006): Do developmental initiatives influence local attitudes toward conservation? A case study from the Kalakad–Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of Environmental management, 79(2), 188-197.
Boone, R. B., & Hobbs, N. T. (2004): Lines around fragments: effects of fencing on large herbivores. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 21(3), 147-158.
Brooks, M. L., D'antonio, C. M., Richardson, D. M., Grace, J. B., Keeley, J. E., DiTomaso, J. M. & Pyke, D. (2004): Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes. BioScience, 54(7), 677-688.
Büscher, B. (2010): Anti‐politics as political strategy: Neoliberalism and transfrontier conservation in southern Africa. Development and change, 41(1), 29-51.
Caro, T. M. & Scholte, P. (2007): When protection falters. African Journal of Ecology, 45, 233–235.
Cavalcanti, S. M., Crawshaw, P. G., & Tortato, F. R. (2012): Use of electric fencing and associated measures as deterrents to jaguar predation on cattle in the Pantanal of Brazil. In Fencing for Conservation (pp. 295-309). Springer, New York, NY.
Dewu, S., & Røskaft, E. (2017): Community attitudes towards protected areas: insights from Ghana. Oryx, 1-8.
Foggin, J. M. (2008): Depopulating the Tibetan grasslands: national policies and perspectives for the future of Tibetan herders in Qinghai Province, China. Mountain Research and Development, 28(1), 26-31.
Foley, J. A., Asner, G. P., Costa, M. H., Coe, M. T., DeFries, R., Gibbs, H. K., & Snyder, P. (2007): Amazonia revealed: forest degradation and loss of ecosystem goods and services in the Amazon Basin. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(1), 25-32.
Grant, C., Bengis, R., Balfour, D. & Peel, M. (2007): Controlling the distribution of elephants. The 2007 scientific assessment of elephant management in South Africa. (eds. Mennell, K. & Scholes, R.) Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg
Hall, S. (2013): Launch of the Akagera fence by the Rwanda Development Board. African Park Latest News. African Parks, www.african-parks.org.
Hayward M W. 2012: Perspectives on fencing for conservation based onfour case studies: Marsupial conservation in Australian forests; bushmeat hunting in South Africa; large predator reintroduction in South Africa; and large mammal conservation in Poland. In:Somers M J, M W Hayward (Eds.). Fencing for Conservation: Restriction of Evolutionary Potential of a Riposte to Threatening Processes? New York: Springer, 7-20.
Hayward, M. W., & Kerley, G. I. (2009): Fencing for conservation: restriction of evolutionary potential or a riposte to threatening processes. Biological Conservation, 142(1), 1-13.
Hesslerova, P., & Pokorny, J. (2010): Forest clearing, water loss, and land surface heating as development costs. International Journal of Water, 5(4), 401-418.
Kesch. M. K; Bauer D. T & Loveridge A. J. (2015): Break on through to the other side: the effectiveness of game fencing to mitigate human–wildlife conflict. African Journal of Wildlife Research 45(1): 76–87
Kenya Wildlife Service (2010): Mt Kenya Forest Ecosystem Management Plan, 2010-2020.
Kideghesho, J. R., Røskaft, E., & Kaltenborn, B. P. (2007): Factors influencing conservation attitudes of local people in Western Serengeti, Tanzania. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16 (7), 2213-2230.
Kioko, J., Muruthi, P., Omondi, P., & Chiyo, P. I. (2008): The performance of electric fences as elephant barriers in Amboseli, Kenya. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 38(1), 52-58.
Laurance, W. F., & Williamson, G. B. (2001): Positive feedbacks among forest fragmentation, drought, and climate change in the Amazon. Conservation Biology, 15(6), 1529 -1535.
Lindsey, P. A., Masterson, C. L., Beck, A. L., & Romañach, S. (2012): Ecological, social and financial issues related to fencing as a conservation tool in Africa. In Fencing for conservation (pp. 215-234). Springer, New York.
Nyaligu, M. O., and Weeks, S. (2013): An elephant corridor in a fragmented conservation landscape: preventing the isolation of Mount Kenya National Park and National Reserve. Parks, 19(1), 91-101.
Norton-Griffiths, M. (2007): How many wildebeest do you need? World Economics, 8, 41–64.
Ogada, M. O., Woodroffe, R., Oguge, N. & Frank, L. G. (2003): Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Conservation Biology, 17, 1521–1530.
Ojima, D. S., Galvin, K. A., & Turner, B. L. (1994): The global impact of land-use change. BioScience, 44(5), 300-304.
Osborn, L. & Anstey, S. (2002): Elephant/human conflict and community development around the Niassa Reserve, Mozambique. WWF-SARPO Report. Internet
Robertson, J., & Lawes, M. J. (2005): User perceptions of conservation and participatory management of IGxalingenwa forest, South Africa. Environmental Conservation, 32(1), 64-75.
Sapkota, S., Aryal, A., Baral, S. R., Hayward, M. W., & Raubenheimer, D. (2014): Economic analysis of electric fencing for mitigating human-wildlife conflict in Nepal. Journal of resources and ecology, 5(3), 237-243.
Sekhar, N. U. (2003): Local people's attitudes towards conservation and wildlife tourism around Sariska Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of environmental Management, 69(4), 339-347.
Somers, M. J. & Hayward, M. W. (2012): Fencing for Conservation: Restriction of Evolutionary Potential or a Riposte to Threatening Processes? Springer, New York, NY.
Stutmoller, P. (2002): The fencing issue relative to the control of foot-and-mouth disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 969, 191–200.
Thakadu, O. T. (2005): Success factors in community based natural resources management in northern Botswana: Lessons from practice. In Natural Resources Forum (Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 199-212). Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.
Thomson, G., Tambi, E., Hargreaves, S., Leyland, T., Catley, A., van’t Klooster, G. & Penrith, M. (2004): International trade in livestock and livestock products. Veterinary Record, 155, 429–433.
Tinker, P. B., Ingram, J. S., & Struwe, S. (1996): Effects of slash-and-burn agriculture and deforestation on climate change. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 58(1), 13-22.