Population Status, Distribution, and Threats of Colobus guereza gallarum in Bale Mountains National Park, Southeastern Ethiopia
International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2018, Pages: 39-45
Received: Jun. 28, 2018; Accepted: Jul. 13, 2018; Published: Aug. 8, 2018
Views 1436      Downloads 196
Israel Petros, Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia
Sefi Mekonen, Department of Ecotourism and Wildlife Management, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia
Hussein Gena, Department of Ecotourism and Biodiversity Conservation, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Madda Walabu University, Robe, Ethiopia
Yared Mesfin, Department of Natural Resource Management, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Arsi University, Assela, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Colobus guereza gallarum is the subspecies of Colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) restricted to the Ethiopian highlands to the east of the Rift Valley. This study was carried out from February to June 2016 to provide data on Population status, distribution, and threats of C. g. gallarum in Bale Mountains National Park. Line transects with 5 km distance were made in all survey areas to estimate the whole population in the area. Field visits and questionnaire distribution were made to assess community perception and threats to the species. The major population of C. g. gallarum was observed in Rira. A total of 116 and 113 individuals were observed in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. There was no significant difference between wet and dry seasons (F= 0.072, df=1, p=0.795) of the population size of C. g. gallarum. Out of 229 individuals of guereza counted in both dry and wet seasons, 44 were adult males, 58 adult females, 42 sub-adult males, 43 sub-adult females and the remaining 42 were young individuals. However, as t-test indicated, here was no significant difference between wet and dry seasons in a number of in this sex and age categories (P>0.70). The male to female ratio was 1.00:1.1, while, the age ratio of young to all other individuals was 1.00:4.45. Here also, the ratio of young to an adult female was 1.00:1.40 and 1.00:1.36 during dry and wet seasons, respectively. The response of communities indicated the presence of positive perception towards the species due to its main importance for tourism and cultural aspect of the communities. Moreover, habitat destruction due to logging, farmland expansion and settlement were main observed threats to species in the area.
Colobus guereza gallarum, Distribution, Population Structure, Threats
To cite this article
Israel Petros, Sefi Mekonen, Hussein Gena, Yared Mesfin, Population Status, Distribution, and Threats of Colobus guereza gallarum in Bale Mountains National Park, Southeastern Ethiopia, International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2018, pp. 39-45. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnrem.20180303.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Yalden, D. W. (1983). The extent of high ground in Ethiopia compared to the rest of Africa. SINET 6: 35- 40.
Fishpool, J. and Evans, M. I. (2001). Important Bird Areas in Africa and Associated Islands; Priority Sites for Conservation. Piscus Publishers, Cambridge.
IBC (2007). Bale Mountain National Park Management Plan (2007- 2017). Institute of Biodiversity Conservation, Addis Ababa.
Jensz, K. and Finley, L. (2011). Species profile for Colobusguereza. Latitude Environmental Consultants Pty Ltd. Hobart, Tasmania.
Kingdon, J., Struhsaker, T., Oates, J. F., Hart, J. & Groves, C. P. (2008). Colobus guereza. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. . Downloaded on 10 October 2017.
Nkurunungi, J., and Stanford, C. (2003). Behavioral Ecology of Sympatric Chimpanzees and Gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: Diet. International Journal of Primatology. 24 (4): 902-918.
Aramde Fetene, Girma Mengesha and TsegayeBekele (2011). Spatial distribution and habitat preferences of selected large mammalian species in the NechSar NationalPark (NSNP), Ethiopia. Nature and Science. 9 (3): 80-90.
Alers M, Bovarnick A, Boyle T, Mackinnon K, Sobrevila C, (2007). Reducing threats to protected areas: Lessons from the field. A Joint UNDP and World Bank GEF Lessons Learned study. p. 84.
Gashaw, T. (2015). Threats of Bale Mountains National Park and solutions, Ethiopia. Journal of Physical Science and Environmental Studies, 1 (2): 10-16.
Norman Myers, Russell A. Mittermeier, Cristina G. Mittermeier, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca and Jennifer Kent (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858.
Bird Life International (2001). Important Bird Areas of Africa and Associated Islands, Priority Areas for Conservation. Pisces Publishers, Cambridge.
Fashing, P. J and Cords, M. (2000). Diurnal Primate Densities and Biomass in the Kakamega Forest: An Evaluation of Census Methods and a Comparison with Other Forests. American Journal of Primatology 50:139–152.
Leca, Jean-Baptiste, Gunst, N., Rompis, A., Soma, G. Arta Putra, I. G. A. and Wandia, I. N. (2013). Population Density and Abundance of Ebony Leaf Monkeys (Trachypithecusauratus) in West Bali National Park, Indonesia. Primate Conservation 2013 (26): 133–144.
Addisu Mekonnen, Afwork Bekele, Hemson, G., Eyob Teshome and Anagaw Atickem (2010). Population size, and habitat preference of the Vulnerable Bale monkey (Cholorocebus djamdjaminesis) in Odobullo forest and its distribution across the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. Oryx 44: 558-563.
Wallace, B. R., Painter, R. L. E. and Taber, A. B. (1998). Primate diversity, habitat preference and population density in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park. Samba Cruz Department, Bolivia. Am. J. Primatol. 46:197-211.
Peres, C. A. (1999). General guidelines for standardizing line transect surveys of tropical forest primates. Neotrop. Primatol. 7:11-16.
Israel, G. D. (1992) Determining Sample Size. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS, Florida.
Oates J. F., Davies A. G. (1994). What are the colobines? In: Oates JF, Davies AG (eds). Colobine Monkeys: their ecology, behaviour and evolution. 1-9. Cambridge University Press, UK.
Jeremiah S. Lwanga 2006 The influence of forest variation and possible effects of poaching on duiker abundance at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. African journal of Ecology. 44 (2). 209-218.
Fashing, P. J. (2001a). Activity and ranging patterns of guerezas in the Kakamega forest: Intergroupvariation and implications for intragroup feeding competition. Int. J. Primatol. 22:549–577.
Eustace, A., Kisingo, A. W., Kahana, L. W., and Lyimo, E. H. (2015). Activity Patterns of Black and White Colobus Monkey (Colobusguerezacaudatus) in Rau Forest Reserve, Tanzania. Research and Reviews: Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 3 (4):17-24.
Israel Petros, Kassahun Abie and Berhanu Esubalew (2016). Threats, Opportunities and Community perception of Biological resource conservation in Bale mountains national park case of Dinsho districs, Ethiopia. Int. Res. J. Biological Sci. 5 (4): 6-13.
DeGama-Blanchet, H. N and Fedigan, L. M. (2005). The Effects of Forest Fragment Age, Isolation, Size, Habitat Type, and Water Availability on Monkey Density in a Tropical Dry Forest. Springer.
Anderson J., Cowlishaw, Rowcliffe J. M.. (2007). Effects of forest fragmentation on the abundance of Colobusangolensispalliatusin Kenya’s coastal forests. International Journal of Primatology 28: 637-655.
Gómez-Posada, C., Martínez, J., Giraldo, P. And Kattan, G. H. (2007). Density, habitat use, and ranging patterns of red howler monkeys in a colombian andean forest. Neotropical Primates 14: 2-10.
Harris, T. R. (2006). Between-group contest competition for food in a highly folivorous population of black and white colobus monkeys (Colobusguereza). Behavioral Ecologyand Sociobiology 61: 317-329.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186