Physicochemical Quality of Water and Influence on the Dynamics of Bacteria Circulating in Water Points for Domestic Use in Yaoundé (Cameroon)
International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management
Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages: 112-119
Received: Jul. 6, 2019;
Accepted: Jul. 30, 2019;
Published: Aug. 20, 2019
Views 460 Downloads 107
Ngong Ankiambom Innocent, Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Environment, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde, Cameroon; Public School of Medical Laboratory Sciences Yaounde, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon; Higher Institute of Health Professions Cameroon (ISPS), Higher University Institutions of Health, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon
Ajeagah Gideon Aghaindum, Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Environment, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde, Cameroon
Kapso Tchouankep Mireille, Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Environment, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde, Cameroon; Public School of Medical Laboratory Sciences Yaounde, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon
Nguepidjio Gilbert, Public School of Medical Laboratory Sciences Yaounde, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, Distant Production House University (DPHU), Brazzaville, Gabon
Sotchang Mbounga Ines Olivia, Public School of Medical Laboratory Sciences Yaounde, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon
Fouossong Banhatio Ignace, Public School of Medical Laboratory Sciences Yaounde, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon
Nnah Mbele Jean Pierre, Laboratory of Parasitology, Efoulan District Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon
Kechia née Kom Assumpta Ikei, Labolatory of Application, Public School of Medical Laboratory Sciences Yaounde, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon
Enoka Patrice, Public School of Medical Laboratory Sciences Yaounde, Ministry of Public Health, Yaounde, Cameroon
Follow on us
A study seek to identify the bacterial germs that colonize aquatic environments in relation to some abiotic parameters of the environment was conducted from March to September 2018 in five neighborhoods of Yaounde on 14 wells, 7 sources and 5 streams. The sampling stations were chosen according to the sources of pollution, their geographical distribution, and their importance for the user populations. Samples and physico-chemical and bacteriological analyzes were carried out using appropriate techniques. The physicochemical analyzes revealed that the samples are generally well oxygenated (Dissolved oxygen (8 mg/L)), rich in organic and mineral matter (BOD5 = 41,66 ± 20,5 mg/L of oxygen) and loaded in particles (Total dissolved solids = 121,04 ±94,4 mg/L, Suspended Solids = 30, 67 ± 22,0 mg/L). The results of the bacteriological analyzes show that these waters host many bacterial communities such as total coliforms and fecal coliforms with a frequency of occurrence at more than 40% of species such as Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia rettgeri, Alcaligenes denitrificans, Providencia stuartii, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Citrobacter koseri, all gram-negative bacteria. The densities of these pathogens are significantly related to suspended solids, BOD5, nitrite and orthophosphate levels, and the availability of dissolved oxygen (P <0.05). The origin of faecal pollution in the water points studied varies according to the sites and would be either human, animal or mixed. The dynamics of the abundances of the different germs identified and their occurrence in the environment would be related to the physicochemical quality of the water.
Physico-chemistry, Water, Pollution, Bacteria, Environment
To cite this article
Ngong Ankiambom Innocent,
Ajeagah Gideon Aghaindum,
Kapso Tchouankep Mireille,
Sotchang Mbounga Ines Olivia,
Fouossong Banhatio Ignace,
Nnah Mbele Jean Pierre,
Kechia née Kom Assumpta Ikei,
Physicochemical Quality of Water and Influence on the Dynamics of Bacteria Circulating in Water Points for Domestic Use in Yaoundé (Cameroon), International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management.
Vol. 4, No. 5,
2019, pp. 112-119.
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Volk C., Joret J. C. 1994. Predictive parameters of the appearance of coliforms in food-water distribution networks; Journal of Water Sciences; 7: 131-152.
Bied-Charreton M., Raoudha Makkaoui et al. 2006. Governance of Water Resources in Developing Countries: National and Global Issues; Developing world; 39-62.
DHS (Demographic and Health Surveys). 2019. Demographic and Health Surveys Cameroon 2018: Key indicators; National Institute of Statistics; Ministry of Public Health Yaoundé, Cameroon. The DHS Program, ICF, Rockville, Maryland, USA.
Rodier J., Merlet N., Lugube B. 2009. The analysis of water. 9th edition, Dunod, Paris, 1526 p.
Nebout T., Desroy N., Mao P. 2010. Coordination of the study of benthic settlements in the Seine- Normandy district as part of the Rebent-DCE-Manche surveillance monitoring. I. 80 p.
Ait Boughrous A. 2007. Biodiversity, ecology and groundwater quality of two arid regions of Morocco: Tafilalet and the Marrakech region. PhD thesis, Faculty of Sciences. Cadi Ayyad University Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco. 236 p.
Boutin C. 1993. Water from shallow groundwater, a vital but vulnerable natural resource. The example of rural areas of Morocco. Journal of Water Science, 6 (3): 357-365.
Ginet R., Decou V. 1977. Initiation to biology and underground ecology. J. P Delarge edition, Paris France. 345p.
Abdelbaki C., Bouklihacene F. 2007. Study of the groundwater degradation phenomenon of the Tlemcen urban group, Renewable Energies Review, 10 (2): 257-263.
Nisbet M. and Vernaux J. 1970. Chemical components of running waters. Discussion and proposal of classes as bases of interpretation of chemical analyzes. Annals of Limnology; 6 (2): 161-190.
Pankow R., James F. 1991. Aquatic Chemistry Concepts. Redox potential as an environmental parameter. Conceptual significance and operational limitation. Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada, 3 (1): 283-308.
APHA 2005. American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA), Water Environment Federation (WEF), Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater; 21e edition, 1520 p.
Chippaux J. P., Houssier Sgross P., Bouvier C., Brissaud F. 2002. Study of the pollution of groundwater of the city of Niamey, Niger. Bulletin of the Exotic Pathology Society, 94 (2): 119-123.
WHO. 2011. Weekly Epidemiological Record, WHO Library Cataloging-in-Publication, 31: 325-340.
Leifson, Hugh. 1954. Search for glucose pathway. Search for the respiratory type. Portal of Biology; CC -SA, 4 p.
Neveu A., Riou C., Bonhomme R., Chassin P., Papy F. 2001. Water in rural areas. Life and Aquatic Environment, Paris: INRA, France, 105p.
Allouche F., Lamri D., Zahf F. 1999. Monitoring of the bacteriological and physicochemical quality of the contaminated waters level of the three communes: Ali Boussid, Saby, Ben Badis, wilaya of Sidi Bel Abbes. Master's thesis in biology, University of sidi bel Abbes 72 p + Appendices.
Degbey C., Makoutode M. et al. 2011. Factors Associated with Well Water Quality and Prevalence of Waterborne Diseases in the Municipality of Abomey-Calavi (Benin) French-Language Study and Research Paper 21 (1): 47-55.
Sharpe M. E. 1979. Identification of the lactic acid bacteria, identification methods for resisting bacteria in a drinking water treatment plant. Environmental microbiology; 10 (10): 2728-2745.
Saunders AM, Kristiansen A. et al. 2009. A Detection And persistence of fecal Bacteroidales as water quality indicators in unchlorinated drinking water. Systems of Applied Microbiolology; 32: 362-370.
Ajeagah G. A., Njiné T., Nola M., Foto Menbohan S., Wouafo N. M. 2007. Evaluation de l’abondance des formes de résistance de deux protozoaires pathogènes (Giardia sp. et Cryptosporidium sp.) dans deux biotopes aquatiques de Yaoundé (Cameroun). Cahier d’Etudes et de Recherche Francophones/Santé; 17 (3): 167-172.
Ajeagah G. A., Njine T., Bilong Bilong C. F., Foto Menbohan S., Wouafo Ndayo M., Nola M., Di Giovanni G. D., Huw S. 2010. Seasonal Distribution of Enteric Opportunistic Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts and Giardia spp. Cysts in a tropical Water Basin, Cameroun. WATER; 12 (1): 44-57.
Makoutode, Assani A. K. et al. 1999. Quality and management of well water in rural Benin: the case of the Grand Popo sub prefecture. Medicine of Black Africa 46 (11): 528-534.