This study was conducted at Abohoye Dengera natural forest to investigate the status of Harwood’s Francolin (Pternistis harwoodi) and threats affecting its population. Data were collected using line transect method and questionnaire survey. The main objective of the study was to investigating the status of Pternistis harwoodi and anthropogenic effects at Abohoye Dengera natural forest. A stratified random sampling method was used to assess the Pternistis harwoodi across the four dominant habitat types found in the study area: forest, woodland, scrubland, and farmland. Surveys were conducted during January 2018 and August 2018 which includes both the dry and wet seasons. Data collection was carried out during 6:00 to 10:00 AM, and 4:00 to 6:00 PM, when the activity of birds was more prominent. Line-transect methods were used to collect data on Pternistis harwoodi. The Harwood’s Francolin species was estimated using direct (Line transect) and indirect (“calls” of the Harwood’s Francolin n) methods. Field data were collected from a total of 8 line transects ranging from 0.5–1 km, each 150–300 m far apart. During the study period a total of 83 Pternistis harwoodi were observed. A total of 60 households are living in the surrounding area. Out of these 30(50%) of them were interviewed. Major threats reported in the study area included: wildfire, agriculture, hunting, free grazing, predation, and firewood/timber collection. Among all these threats, deforestation was found to be the major threat in the study area, followed by wildfire, free grazing, agriculture, hunting, firewood/timber collection, and predation. Pternistis harwoodi preferred forest habitat followed by farmland, scrubland and wood land. To overcome the above challenges, proper conservation measures have to be taken to solve the problems and prevent the bird from its vulnerable situation.
Determination of Threats and Their Relative Severity on Harwood’s Francolin (Pternistis harwoodi) at Abahoy Dengera Natural Forest, Awi Administrative Zone, Northwestern Ethiopia, International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2019, pp. 29-34.
Akhtar S, Kabir MM, Begum S, Hasan MK. 2015. Activity pattern of white-breasted water hen Amaurornis phoenicurus at Jahangirnagar University campus, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 41: 189–198.
Ash, J. and Atkins, J. (2009). Birds of Ethiopia and Eritrea: An Atlas of Distribution. Christopher Helm, London.
Bhattacharya T., Sathyakumar S. & Rawat G. S. (2009). Distribution and abundance of Galliformes in response to anthropogenic pressures in the buffer zone of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. International Journal of Galliformes Conservation, 1: 78–84.
Bibby, C. J., N. B. Collar, M. J. Crosby, M. F. Heath, C. Imboden, T. H. Jonston, A. J. Long, A. J. Satterfield & S. J. Thirgood. 1992. Putting Biodiversity on the Map: Priority Areas for Global Conservation. Barrington Press, Cambridge
Bibby, C. J., N. D. Burgess, D. A. Hill & S. H. Mustoe (Eds) (2000). Bird Census Techniques. 2nd Edition. Academic Press, London, 302pp.
Bird Life International (2014). The Bird Life Checklist of The Birds Of The world: Version 7. Downloaded.
Birdlife International 2017. Species factsheet: Pternistis harwoodi. Www.birdlife.org. Downloaded on 21/02/2017.
Brooke, M. and Birkhead, T. (1991). the Cambridge Encyclopedia of Ornithology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 362 pp.
Brooks, T. M., Mittemeier, R. A., Mittemeier, C. G. and da Fonseca, G. A. B. (2002). Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology, 16: 909-923.
BURFAHM, K. P., ANDERSON, D. R. AND LAAKE. J. L., 1980. Estimation of density from line transects sampling of biological populations. wildl. Monogr., 72; 1-202.
Collar, N. J., M. J. Crosby & A. J. Satterfield (1994). Birds to Watch 2: The World List of Threatened birds. Bird Life International (Bird Life Conservation Series no. 4), Cambridge, U.K.
Del Hoyo, J., N. J. Collar, D. A. Christie, A. Elliott & L. D. C. Fish pool (2014). HBW and Bird Life International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx editions Bird Life International, 904pp.
Ethiopian wildlife and Natural History Society (EWNHS) (1996). Important Bird Areas of Ethiopia: a first inventory. Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society, Addis Ababa, 300 pp.
Fuller, R. A., Carroll, J. P. and McGowan, P. J. K. (2000). Partridges, Quails, Francolins, Stopcocks, Guineafowl and Turkeys. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan 2000 –2004. IUCN and World Pheasant Association, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
ICBP (1992) Putting biodiversity on the map: priority areas for global conservation. Cambridge.
Julliard, Jiguet, J. and Cuvet, D. 2003 common birds facing global changes; what makes species at risk? global change BIol. 10, 148- 154.
Khan, R. A (1997). Status and ecology of Black and Grey Francolin in agricultural land in the Punjab, Pakistan, WPA News, 52: 30-34.
Kideghesho, J. R. (2009). The potentials of traditional African cultural practices in mitigating overexploitation of wildlife species and habitat loss: experience of Tanzania. International Journal of Biodiversity Science & Management, 5: 83-94.
Kidwai Z. (2013). Effect of anthropogenic factors on the abundance of Galliformes in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Avian Ecology Behavior, 23: 3–13.
Leuschner, C., Moser, G., Hertel, D., Erasmi, S., Leitner, D., Culmsee, H., Schuldt, B. and Chwendenmann, L. (2013). Conversion of tropical moist forest into cacao agro forest: consequences for carbon pools and annual C sequestration. Agroforestry Systems. 87: 1173-1187.
MARTIN, T. E. 1993. Nest predation and nest sites; new perspectives on old pattern. Bioscience 43; 523-532.
McGowan, P. J. K. 1994. Phasianidae (Pheasants and Partridges). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 434-552. Lynx Editions, Barcelona, Spain.
Michel, S. (2008). Conservation and use of wild Ungulates in central Asia- potentials and challenges. In: R. D. Baldus, G. R. Damn and K. Wollscheid (eds.) Best practices in sustainable hunting- A guide to best practices from around the world. pp. 32-40.
Pomeroy, D. (1992). Counting Birds, A guide to Assessing Numbers, Biomass and diversity of afro tropical Birds. African Wildlife Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya, 48 pp.
Rand, A. L. (1967). Ornithology an Introduction. A Signet Book, the New American library, 352 pp.
Redman, C. J., M. Johnes & S. Marsden (2009). Princeton Field Guides: Birds of the Horn of Africa: Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia and Socotra. Christopher Helm, London, 496pp.
Richard Grimmett R, Inskipp C, Inskipp T (2011) Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Oxford University Press, pp 888.
Robertson, P. A., D. Yilma, D. Sileshi, S. Anteneh, W. Tadesse & A. Million (1997). Harwood’s Francolin francolinus harwoodi: recent observations on its status, distribution, habitat requirements, behavior and threats. Bird Consecration International 7: 275–282; http://doi.org/10.1017/S095927090000157X.
ROBERTS, T. J., 1991. The Birds of Pakistan. Vol. I. Regional studies and non-Passeriformes. Oxford Univ. Press. Karachi, Pakistan, p. 598 Park, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool., 44: 1593-1601.
Spiker (1929). A compressive study on the population habitat of the grey.
Thomas, L., S. T Buckland, E. A. Rexstad, J. L. Laake, S. Strindberg, S. L. Hedley, J. R. B. Bishop, T. A. marques & K. P. Burnham (2010). Distance software: design and analysis of distance sampling surveys for Estimating population size. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 5–14.
Whited, D., Galatowitsch, S., Tester, J. R., Schik, K., Lehtinen, R. and Husveth, J. (2000). The importance of local and regional factors in predicting effective conservation planning strategies for wetland bird communities in agricultural and urban landscapes. Lands c. Urb. Plan. 49: 49-65.
Williams, J. G. and Arlott, N. (1980). Collins Field Guide to Birds of East Africa. Harper Collins publishers, Hong Kong, 376 pp.
Wondafrash, M. (2005). The globally threatened Harwood’s Francolin Francolinus harwoodi: range, ecology, threats and conservation measures. Project Terminal Report Submitted to Research program on Sustainable Use of Dry land Biodiversity (RPSUD). Ethiopian Wildlife Natural History society (EWNHS) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 36pp.
Zelelew SA. 2013. The birds of Lake Tana Area: a photographic field guide. Addis Ababa: View Graphics Publisher.