International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management
Volume 1, Issue 4, November 2016, Pages: 171-178
Received: Aug. 22, 2016;
Accepted: Sep. 3, 2016;
Published: Oct. 11, 2016
Views 3381 Downloads 173
Floerence S. Kuukyi, Entomology and Wildlife Department, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
Edward D. Wiafe, Environmental and Natural Resources Management, Presbyterian University College, Akropong - Akuapem, Ghana
Field survey was conducted in ten farms in Northern Region from December 2014 to April 2015 to collect, identify and access the insects distribution on the cashew farms close to natural forest and agricultural farm land, during the flowering and the fruiting periods of cashew. The sample farms were divided into four plots measuring 20 m x 25 m. Insects found on the cashew plants during the flowering and fruiting periods were identified, counted and unidentified insects were killed in killing jars and preserved in 70% alcohol for further identification. The following were the insects encountered in both farms during the flowering period: Total insects 6161, mean 1232.2 (SD = 250.7, N = 40). Density was 6161/ha and diversity was 3.34. Total insect 2745, mean 549 (SD = 103.2, N = 40). Density was 2745/ha and diversity was 3.56. During the fruiting period, the following insects were also enumerated in both farms: Total 4665, mean 933 (SD = 143.5, N = 40). Density was 4665/ha and diversity of 3.13. Total 2056, mean 411.2 (SD = 52.1, N = 40). Density was 2056/ha and diversity was also 3.14. Density in both farms during the flowering period were more than the fruiting period in both farms, however insect diversity was more during the fruiting period than the flowering period. Further studies should be conducted on an all year round survey to identify residence insects from insects that visit cashew during flowering and fruiting period, integrated pest management strategies and integration of insect conservation into the national biodiversity conservation policy were also recommended.
Floerence S. Kuukyi,
Edward D. Wiafe,
Density and Diversity of Insects That Visit Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Plants in the Flowering and Fruiting Periods in Northern Ghana, International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management.
Vol. 1, No. 4,
2016, pp. 171-178.
Mello, M. O., & Silva-Filho, M. C. (2002). Plant-insect interactions: An evolutionary arms race between two distinct defense mechanisms. Brasilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 14(2), 71–81. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202002000200001
Bleil, R., Blüthgen, N., & Junker, R. R. (2011). Ant-Plant Mutualism in Hawai‘i? Invasive Ants Reduce Flower Parasitism but also Exploit Floral Nectar of the Endemic Shrub Vaccinium reticulatum (Ericaceae) 1. Pacific Science, 65(3), 291–300. http://doi.org/10.2984/65.3.291
Gómez, J. M., Bosch, J., Perfectti, F., Fernández, J., & Abdelaziz, M. (2007). Pollinator diversity affects plant reproduction and recruitment: The tradeoffs of generalization. Oecologia, 153(3), 597–605. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-007-0758-3
Bhattacharya, A., Mello, M. O., Silva-Filho, M. C., Agosti, D., Majer, D. J., Alonso, E. L., Rodríguez-Gironés, M. a. (2002). Plant-insect interactions: An evolutionary arms race between two distinct defense mechanisms. Brasilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 14(2), 71–81. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202002000200001
Dwomoh, E. (2008). Survey of insect species associated with cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) and their distribution in Ghana. African Journal of, 1(September), 6–16. Retrieved from http://www.cerambycoidea.com/titles/dwomohalii2008.pdf
Soares, D. J., Vasconcelos, P. H. M. De, Camelo, A. L. M., Longhinotti, E., Sousa, P. H. M. De, & Figueiredo, R. W. De. (2013). Prevalent fatty acids in cashew nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation in different stages of processing. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 33(2), 265–270. http://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612013005000050
Opoku-Ameyaw, K., & Appiah, M. (2000). Improving the growth of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) seedlings interplanted into mature sheanut stands in northern Ghana. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, 33(2), 159–164. http://doi.org/10.4314/gjas.v33i2.1865
Phuong, N. T. (2010). Application of ipm in preventing intergrated cashew pests, 1–6.
Abid, A., Addressed, N., Standards, C. C., Arts, E. L., Adjaloo, M., Oduro, W., … Gemmill-Herren, B. (2013). Flower visitors and fruitset of Anacardium occidentale. Oecologia, 2(1), 1–5. http://doi.org/10.1086/282813
Bhattacharya, A. (2004). Flower visitors and fruitset of Anacardium occidentale. Annales Botanici Fennici, 41(December), 385–392.
Navarro, L. (2001). Reproductive biology and effect of nectar robbing on fruit production in Macleania bullata (Ericaceae). Plant Ecology, 152(1), 59–65. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011463520398
Garibaldi, L. a., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Winfree, R., Aizen, M. a., Bommarco, R., Cunningham, S. a., Klein, a. M. (2013). Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of Honey Bee Abundance. Science, 339(6127), 1608–1611. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1230200
Vaissière, B., Freitas, B., & Gemmill-Herren, B. (2011). Protocol to detect and assess pollination deficits in crops: a handbook for its use. of Pollination, 70. Retrieved from http://www.internationalpollinatorsinitiative.org/uploads/Protocol_PolDef_FINAL.pdf
Picker, M., Griffiths, C., & Weaving, a. (2002). Field guide to insects of South Africa. African Zoology.
America, S., & Brazil, N. E. (2008). Integrated production and protection practices of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale ) in Nigeria. Journal of Biotechnology, 7(25), 4868–4873. Retrieved from http://apps.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=1&SID=Q2pHBK2dhak4O7MgpiE&page=1&doc=2
Gonzálvez, F. G., Santamaría, L., Corlett, R. T., & Rodríguez-Gironés, M. a. (2013). Flowers attract weaver ants that deter less effective pollinators. Journal of Ecology, 101(1), 78–85. http://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12006
Warthen, J. D., Lee, C. J., Jang, E. B., Lance, D. R., & McInnis, D. O. (1997). Volatile, Potential Attractants from Ripe Coffee Fruit for Female Mediterranean Fruit Fly. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 23(7), 1891–1900. http://doi.org/10.1023/b:joec.0000006458.02342.61
Renoult, J. P., Valido, A., Jordano, P., & Schaefer, H. M. (2014). Adaptation of flower and fruit colours to multiple, distinct mutualists. New Phytologist, 201(2), 678–686. http://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12539
Encinas-Viso, F., Revilla, T. a., van Velzen, E., & Etienne, R. S. (2014). Frugivores and cheap fruits make fruiting fruitful. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27(2), 313–324. http://doi.org/10.1111/jeb.12301
Levey, D. J., Tewksbury, J. J., Izhaki, I., Tsahar, E., & Haak, D. C. (2007). Secondary Compounds in Ripe Fruit: Case Studies with Capsaicin and Emodin. Seed Dispersal: Theory and Its Application in a Changing World, 37–58.