There is no doubt that the chemical water treatment has resolved the problem of drinking water supply for several decades to humankind especially in terms of pathogen microorganisms and turbidity removal. However, due to chemicals used through this treatment and increasing quantities of pollutants discharged into nature, numerous health problems have been largely more and more proved and reported. This review discusses the toxicity of chlorine, alum, and polyelectrolyte which are widely employed through the world. The main addressed question here is: When the true and radical water treatment technology will be really and definitely applied? There is no water treatment technique but only distillation process which is successfully applied at the largest scale in nature by God. At least, physical processes such as membrane processes should be more and more applied through water treatment plants for reducing chemicals use. Most of chlorination disadvantages may be avoided through a better understanding of the mutual actions conducting to the generation of chlorine by-products and the use of more sophisticated procedures to assess toxicity capacity of such chemicals. Finally, this study arrives at its time since the Environmental Engineers and the Green Chemistry specialists have largely opened the discussion about polluting industry and preserving nature. Returning Man to its initial and noble Mission on Earth is reflected through this research to preserve both humankind and nature.
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