This paper presents a new type of perception that consists of adding something to the sensory data that is not present in any of the brain states or in sensory data of the past or present, not even implicitly. This capacity to create structural novelty, which is called ‘completion’ done by the open brain, is the key to resolving many epistemological problems (paradoxes of knowledge). Combined with real infinity in the world, it gives, together with incommensurability and intentionality, a clear account of objectivity, conceptualization, free will and other problematic issues. We call this ‘objective multi-relativism,’ allowing several incommensurable truths referring to an identical invariance in reality. Finally, good faith and bad faith are introduced as epistemological principles, which are the driving forces that allow us to agree or not on something incommensurable. This is not a theory of knowledge but just a logical study of what would happen to the above issues if the different considered forms of infinity were the case.
On Perception and Some Consequences: The World, the Brain and Infinity, International Journal of Philosophy.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2014, pp. 60-71.
F. Varela, E. Thompson, and E. Rosch, The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience, Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1991
P. K. Feyerabend, Against Method, London: New Left Books, 1975.
I. Prigogine and I. Stengers, Order Out of Chaos: Man's New Dialogue with Nature, London: Flamingo, 1984. French original: La nouvelle alliance, Paris: Gallimard, 1979.
H.-O. Peitgen, H. Jürgens, and D. Saupe, Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science, New York: Springer Verlag, 1992.
D. Ruelle, Chaotic Evolution and Strange Attractors, Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
B. Mandelbrot, Fractals and Chaos, Berlin: Springer, 2004. French original: Les objets fractals, Paris: Flammarion, 1975.
H.-O. Peitgen and P. H. Richter, The Beauty of Fractals, Berlin: Springer, 1986.
L. Nottale, Fractal Space-time and Microphysics: Towards a Theory of Scale Relativity, London: World Scientific, 1993.
L. Nottale, Scale Relativity Theory and Fractal Space-Time: A New Approach to Unifying Relativity and Quantum Mechanics, London: Imperial College Press, 2011.
H. Guillemot, “Voyage au centre du proton,” Science & Vie, (908), 1993, p. 60–65.
Entry “Preon” on Wikipedia.
B. Greene, The Elegant Universe, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2003, p. 142.
G. Cantor, Gesammelte Abhandlungen mathematischen und philosophischen Inhalts, E. Zermolo, Ed. Berlin: Springer, 1932. Different texts published from 1872 on.
R. Dedekind, Was sind und was sollen die Zahlen. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1888
L. Nottale, 1993, p. 286.
E. B. Norman, “Are fundamental constants really constant?” American Journal of Physics, (54), 1986, p. 317ff.
B. Greene, 2003, p. 130.
C. Sparrow, The Lorenz Equations: Bifurcations, Chaos, and Strange Attractors, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982.
YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FYE4JKAXSfY entitled “Simple Model of the Lorenz Attractor.”
A. Abächerli, Beyond the paradoxes of knowledge. Au-delà des paradoxes de la connaissance, only in French, unpublished preprint, University of Lausanne, 1998. Available by email from the author.
R. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down, New York: Basic Books, 2005.
Entry “Emergent Properties” in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/properties-emergent/.
M. Gu, C. Weedbrook, A. Perales and M. A. Nielsen, “More really is different,” Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, vol. 238 (9–10), 2009, p. 835–930.
W. V. O. Quine, From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1964, p. 20ff.
J. W. Scott, “Idealism as Tautology or Paradox”, Philosophical Review, (22), 5, 1913, p. 470.
Entry “Kant's antinomies” on Wikipedia.
L. Wittgenstein, Philosophische Untersuchungen/ Philoso- phical Investigations, Oxford: Blackwell, 1953.
R. M. Rorty, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Princeton, NJ: University Press, 1980.
R. Carnap, Der logische Syntax der Sprache, Wien: Springer, 1934.
R. Carnap, Introduction to Semantics, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1942.
W. V. O. Quine, “Two dogmas of empiricism,” Philosophical Review, (60), 1951, pp. 20–43, collected in Quine, From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953.
S. Kripke, “Naming and necessity,” in Semantics of Natural Language, G. Harman and D. Davidson, Eds. Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1972, p. 119-121.
P. Ziff, Semantic Analysis. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1960, p. 183-184.
W. V. O. Quine, Word and Object, Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1960, § 12.
W. V. O. Quine, Ontological Relativity, New York: Columbia University Press, 1969, p. 26ff.
W. V. O. Quine, 1969, p. 38.
P. Ziff, 1960, p. 102ff.
S. Kripke, 1972, p. 121.
J. R. Searle, Expression and Meaning. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1979, p. 1-29.
Corresponding entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-underdetermination.
W. V. O. Quine, “Identity, ostentation and hypostasis,” Journal of Philosophy, (47), 1950, pp. 621-632, collected in Quine, From a logical point of view, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press., 1953.
Entry “Gestalt psychology,” chapter “Critics” on Wikipedia.
D. Bohm, Causality and Chance in Modern Physics, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957.
D. Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, London: ARK Edition, 1980.
D. Bohm and F. D. Peat, Science, Order and Creativity, New York, Bantam Books, 1987.
C. A. Skarda and W. J. Freeman, “Chaos and the new science of the brain,” Concepts in Neuroscience, 1(2), World Scientific Publishing Company, 1990, pp. 275–285
H. Putnam, Reason, Truth and History, Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1981, p. 34
I. Hacking, Representing and Intervening, Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1983, p. 81
D. Bohm and F. D. Peat, Science, Order and Creativity, New York, Bantam Books, 1987. French translation: La conscience et l'univers. Monaco: Ed. du Rocher. 1990, p. 126