American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 66-75
Received: Apr. 6, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 22, 2015;
Published: May 6, 2015
Views 12425 Downloads 607
Sonny Joseph, Psychiatry, Dr. Phillips Hospital Physician’s Office, Orlando, Florida, USA
Integrating aspects of playing dynamics, psychosocial insights derived from expertise in clinical psychology, psychiatry and public health, soccer observations, years of playing and refereeing experience, and literature review, the article offers a new perspective of soccer based on a qualitative analysis of the various problems such as critical and game-changing refereeing errors due to lack of sufficient objectivity, excessive fouling, scarcity of goals, the near impossibility of a solo run, flagrant fouling and disabling of gifted players, and the disproportionately frequent fan frustration and violence. The article argues that it is of unique importance in soccer that critical calls by the referee should be nearly 100% accurate primarily because the outcomes of most games are decided by a total of one or two goals. Theories are suggested as to why FIFA (Federation Internationale de Football Association) does not allow the referee to verify critical calls using IVR (Instant Video Review or Replay). Creative solutions are proposed for stimulating lively debate.
A Dynamic and Psychosocial Analysis of Soccer: Problems and Solutions, American Journal of Applied Psychology.
Vol. 4, No. 3,
2015, pp. 66-75.
SirPeleForever. (2008, Oct 11). Pele Greatest Ball Trick [Video File]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/ryIGWJx_CmA
Football!: (2011, June 29). Pele Vs Czechoslovakia 1970 by Zouzinho [Video File]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/wmOYl5DSUaM
Radnedge, K. (2000). The Complete Encyclopedia of Soccer – the bible of world soccer. London: Carlton Books.
Henshaw, R. (1979). The Encyclopedia of World Soccer. Washington, D.C.: New Republic Books.
Anderson, C. and Sally, D. (2013). The Numbers Game. New York, NY: Penguin Books.
Berikson Sports. (2011, April 22). Worst Football Divers and Cheaters [Video File]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/LC-H2wXK4T4
Harris, K. (2003). Pele: His Life and Times. England: Welcome Rain Publishers.
Over Vines. (2014, July 5). Neymar Injury Ends His Career World Cup: Video explains why and how it happened [Video File]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/BPDsIIn5sTU
Swan, J. (2009, June 26). Gordon Banks – The Greatest Ever Save [Video File]: retrieved from http://youtu.be/ngE9RCAdWaE
Singer, M. (2014, June 14). 2014 FIFA World Cup: Nigeria Wins 1-0, Knocks Out Bosnia [Video File]: http://www.cbssports.com/world-cup/eye-on-world-cup/24593074/fifa-world-cup-bosnia-herzegovina-vs-nigeria-preview
Renee, M. (2010). Fouls on Pele [Video File] Retrieved from http://youtu.be/yIWjPGG8fDY
Pele. (2006). The Autobiography. England: Simon & Schuster.
Pele, and Winter, M. (2014). Why Soccer Matters. New York, NY: A Celebra Book.
Ify212. (2009, March 5). Maradona Vs England (1986 World Cup) Both Goals [Video File]: http://youtu.be/KY40__rBvSk
Thereflink. (2007, Nov. 23). Ramos Elbow [Video File]: http://youtu.be/30rSHY9aFBI
Joseph, S. (2014). Notes based on personal observation of friendly match: Brazil Vs Columbia. Played at Sun Life Stadium, Miami, FL on Sept. 5, 2014.
Fifa.com (Official website, 2014). Mission Statement. http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/organisation/index.html
Forrest, B. (2014). The Big Fix. New York: William Morrow.
FIFATV. (2014, Nov. 12). Robin van Persie Goal: Finalist FIFA Puskas Award 2014 [Video File]: https://youtu.be/DeKSmd-hjwo.
Ross, S. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582.
Diener, E., Fraser, S.C., Beaman, A.I., Kelem, R.T. (1976). Effects of deindividuation variables on stealing among Halloween trick-or-treaters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33(2), 178-183.
Ciccarelli, S.K., White, J.N. (2009). Psychology. NJ: Prentice Hall
Dollard, J., Miller, N., Mowrer, O., Sears, R. (1939). Frustration and Aggression. New Haven: Yale University Press.