Effects of Separate and Combined Chronic Ingestion of Codeine and Tramadol on Self Grooming Behavior of Male and Female Albino Rats
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 9, Issue 3, May 2020, Pages: 66-76
Received: May 20, 2020;
Accepted: Jun. 1, 2020;
Published: Jun. 17, 2020
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Shyngle Kolawole Balogun, Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Peter Oluwafemi Famakinde, Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Deborah Yetunde Adebayo, Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Godwin Atue, Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Rodent self-grooming comprises behaviors devoted to caring of the body surface; presentations that have apparent stereotyped and recurring characteristics which makes rodent grooming a appropriate translational tool for studying the effects of substance abuse in humans. Two opioids, codeine and tramadol, both used for the relief of mild to moderately severe pain but overtime has been abused by people to relieve emotional pain were considered in this study. 54 male and female albino rats (24 females and 30 males) with weight ranging from 120g-180g rats were assigned to three experimental groups (codeine, tramadol and combined group) and one control group. In the study, 6 rats were assigned per group. Rats in the codeine group were orally administered 8mg/kg of codeine while rats in the tramadol group were administered with 20mg/kg of tramadol. Rats in the combined group were administered both 8mg/kg of codeine and 10mg/kg of tramadol. Female rats exposed to chronic intake of Tramadol only (Mean =3.14) were found to significantly displayed more body licking grooming behavior compared to female rats administered Codeine only (Mean = 1.33), combination of Codeine and Tramadol (mean = .67) and the control (mean =1.79) (p < .001). Whereas, male rats in the control (mean = 4.23) significantly displayed more body licking grooming behavior compared to male rats administered Codeine only (mean = 3.01), Tramadol only (mean = 3.35), and the combination of Codeine and Tramadol (mean = 2.49) (p < .05). Also, female rats exposed to chronic intake of Codeine only (mean = 4.92), significantly displayed more daily face washing grooming behavior compared to female rats administered Tramadol only (mean = 3.33), combination of Codeine and Tramadol (mean = 3.29) and the control group (mean = 4.76) (p < .001). Whereas, male rats exposed to chronic intake of Codeine only (mean = 4.92), significantly displayed more daily face washing grooming behavior compared to male rats administered Tramadol only (mean = 3.33), combination of Codeine and Tramadol (mean = 3.29) and the control group (mean = 4.76) (p < .001). The findings demonstrated that chronic administration of opioids, codeine and tramadol affected grooming behaviors i.e. face washing and body licking behaviors which are related to possible deterioration of physical appearance and personal grooming habits in humans. Hence, the study suggests that further exploration to unravel the risks related to the consistent consumption of codeine and tramadol on other body systems be considered.
Shyngle Kolawole Balogun,
Peter Oluwafemi Famakinde,
Deborah Yetunde Adebayo,
Effects of Separate and Combined Chronic Ingestion of Codeine and Tramadol on Self Grooming Behavior of Male and Female Albino Rats, American Journal of Applied Psychology.
Vol. 9, No. 3,
2020, pp. 66-76.
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