This research aimed at identifying the levels of metacognitive skills (planning, monitoring, and assessment), cognitive failure, the differences in them according to specialisations (scientific college and literary college), and the predictive ability of metacognitive skills in detecting cognitive failure. The metacognitive skills questionnaire (MCSQ) and cognitive failure questionnaire (CFQ) were applied to 241 female students from Qassim University in Saudi Arabia. It was found that these students have high level of planning, low level of monitoring and assessment, and low level of cognitive failure. Next, it was revealed that there were statistically significant differences in planning and monitoring skills according to specialisations in favour of scientific colleges, and statistically significant differences in cognitive failure in favour of literary colleges. Also, cognitive failure could be inversely predicted by planning and monitoring.
Salem Ali Salem Algharaibeh,
Metacognitive Skills as Predictors of Cognitive Failure, American Journal of Applied Psychology.
Vol. 6, No. 3,
2017, pp. 31-37.
Reason, J. T. (1984). Lapses of attention in everyday life. In R. Parasuraman & D. R. Davies (Eds.), Varieties of attention. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press.
Reason, J. T. (1987). Cognitive aids in process environments: prostheses or tools? International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 27, 463-470.
Reason, J. T. (1990). Human error. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Broadbent, D. E., Cooper, P. F., FitzGerald, P., & Parkes, K. R. (1982). The cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21 (1), 1-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.2044 8260.1982.tb01421.x.
Elfferich, M. D., Nelemans, P. J., Ponds, R.W., De Vries, J., Wijnen, P. A., & Drent, M. (2010). Everyday cognitive failure in sarcoidosis: the prevalence and the effect of anti-TNF- alpha treatment. Respiration, 80 (3), 212-219.
Ashcraft, M. (1989). Human Memory and Cognition. New York: Harper Collins Publisher.
Broadbent, D. E. (1957). A mechanical model for human attention and immediate memory.Psychology Review, 64 (3), 205-215. doi.org/10.1037/h0047313.
Wallace, J. C. (2004). Confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive failures questionnaire: evidence for dimensionality and construct validity. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 307-324. doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2003.09.005.
Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive Psychology. New York: Appleton - Century- Crofts.
Di Fabio, A., & Palazzeschi, L. (2013). Incremental variance in indecisiveness due to cognitive failure compared to fluid intelligence and personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 54 (2013), 261-265.
Hong, J., Tai, K., Hwang, M., & Kuo, Y. (2016). Internet cognitive failure affects learning progress as mediated by cognitive anxiety and flow while playing a Chinese antonym synonym game with interacting verbal-analytical and motor-control. Computers and Education, 100, 32-44.
Day, A., Brasher, K., & Bridger, R. (2012). Accident proneness revisited: the role of psychological stress and cognitive failure. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 49, 532- 535.
Hong, J., Hwang, M., Szeto, E., Tsai, C., Kuo, Y., & Hsu, W. (2016). Internet cognitive failure relevant to self-efficacy, learning interest, and satisfaction with social media learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 214-222.
Abbasi, M., Bagyan, M., & Dehghan, H. (2014). Cognitive failure and alexithymia and predicting high-risk behaviours of students with learning disabilities. International Journal of High Risk Behaviour Addict. 3 (2), 1-6. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.16948.
Rangi, N., Farshad, A., Khosravi, Y., Zare, G., & Mirkazemi, R. (2014). Occupational cognitive failure and its relationship with unsafe behaviours and accidents. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE), 20 (2), 265-271.
Mecacci, L., & Righi, S. (2006). Cognitive failures, metacognitive beliefs and aging. Personality and Individual Differences, 40 (7), 1453-1459. doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.022.
Veysi, N., Taghinezhad, A., Shayan, N., & Azadikhah, M. (2015). A comparison of educational self-regulation strategies and cognitive failures in students afflicted with dysgraphia and normal students. GMP Review, 15, 69-78.
Zargar, F. Mohammadi, A., Shafiei, E., & Fakharian, E. (2015). Comparing cognitive failures and metacognitive beliefs in mild traumatic brain injured patients and normal controls in Kashan. Archive of Trauma Research, 4 (2). doi: 10.5812/atr.4(2)2015.20977.
Tabatabaee, S., Sheikh, M., Malekirad, A., & Samadi, F. (2013). Cognitive failures and metacognitive strategies of thought control in addicts and normal individuals. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2013, 3 (6), 315-32.
Barati, H., & Oreyzi, H. (2010). Comparison of cognitive failure and metacognition components via moderator variable of job accident rate. Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 4 (2), 115- 121.
Shahgholian, M., Azadfallah, P., & Fathi-Ashtiani, A. (2012). Comparison of metacognition components and cognitive failures by personality dimensions. Journal of Behavioural sciences, 2 (2), 125-130.
Nizlel, H., Subanji, Nusantara, T., Susiswo, Sutawidjaja, A., & Rahardjo, S. (2016). University students’ metacognitive failures in mathematical proving investigated based on the framework of assimilation and accommodation. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (12), 1119-1128.
Flavell, J. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The Nature of Intelligence (pp. 231-235). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Swanson, H. & Torhan, M. (1996). Learning disabled and average readers’ working memory and comprehension: does metacognition play a role? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 66 (3), 333-355.
Zachary, W. (2000). Incorporating metacognitive capabilities in synthetic cognition. Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioural Representation, 512-513.
Hacker, D. J. (2005). Metacognition: Definitions and Empirical Foundations. The University of Memphis, Retrieved March 4, 2017. From http://www.ps-yc.memphis.edu\trg\meta.htm.
Garner, R. (1988). Metacognition and Reading Comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Cox. M. T. (2005). Metacognition in computation: A selected research review. Artificial Intelligence, 169(2), 104-141.
Veenman, M. V., & Spaans, M. A. (2005). Relation between intellectual and metacognitive skills: Age and task differences. Learning and Individual Differences, 15, 159-176.
Thamraksa, C. (2004). Metacognition, A key to success for self-learners. BU Academic Review, 4(1), 95-99.
Graham, S. (1997). Effective Language Learning. Clevedon. England: Multilingual Matters.
Wallach, G., & Miller, L. (1988). Language Intervention and Academic Success. Boston: M. A. College Hill Press.
Otero, J., Campanario, J., & Hopkins, K. (1992). The relationship between academic achievement and metacognitive comprehension monitoring ability of Spanish secondary school students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52 (2), 419-430.
El-Sayed, M. (2012). Effectiveness of thinking skills development course in acquiring metacognitive skills and developing the ability of creative thinking of the university female students. Seventh Annual Arab Conference, Faculty of Specific Education in Mansoura University, 11-21 April, 651-682.
El Far, R. & El Subaie, S. (2014). The predictability of cognitive executive functions and big five personality factors of cognitive failure. Arabic Studies in Psychology, 13 (1), 1-27.
Al-Jarrah, A., & Obeidat, A. (2011). Metacognitive thinking level amongst a sample of Yarmouk University students in the light of some variables. Jordan Journal of Educational Sciences, 7 (2), 145-162.
Abu Alia, M. & Al-Wahr M. (2000). The degree of Hashemite University students’ awareness of metacognition related to preparation and submission of examinations skills and their relationships with their level, their cumulative rate and college. Dirasat: Educational Sciences, 28 (1), 1-13.
Al-Khuzam, T. (2002). The degree of students’ metacognition awareness in reading of science and its relationship to their sex, achievement and educational level in Mafraq. Unpublished master theses. Hashemite University: Jordan.
Al-Mutairi, M. (2005). The relationship between metacognition skills awareness and reading comprehension among second secondary students in Kuwait in the light of gender and specialisation. Unpublished Master Thesis, Yarmouk University: Jordan.
Al-Saleem, B., Al-Rbabaah, J., & Al-Khawaldeh, K. (2012). The degree of acquiring metacognitive skills and its relationship with gender and specialisation and academic achievement in Jarash Secondary Schools. The International Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 1 (3), 73-87.