Please enter verification code
Subliminal Evaluative Conditioning Changed Implicit and Explicit Depressive Cognition
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2017, Pages: 15-21
Received: Feb. 6, 2017; Accepted: Feb. 18, 2017; Published: Mar. 10, 2017
Views 1733      Downloads 206
Akihiro Masuyama, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
Kengo Yokomitsu, Tobacco Academic Study Center, Tokyo, Japan
Yuji Sakano, School of Psychological Science, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, Japan
Article Tools
Follow on us
The purpose of our study was to investigate whether subliminal evaluative conditioning could change implicit and explicit depression-related cognition. Subliminal evaluative conditioning was conducted as a form of Primed Lexical Decision Task, in which subliminally presented self-related word was followed supraminally presented positive words. For measuring implicit depression-related cognition, we used Depression Implicit Association Task (Depression IAT), and for explicit depression-related cognition, we used Depression subscale extracting from Depression And Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS-D). Furthermore, we also investigated whether the changes of implicit and explicit cognition could be last for 24 hours. As a result, we found that evaluative conditioning changed the implicit depression-related cognition. However, this changing in implicit cognition did not last for 24 hours later. In explicit depression-related cognition, evaluative conditioning by PLDT changed not all subscale but negative automatic thought for self. These results suggested that evaluative conditioning made temporally changing to implicit depression-related cognition while sustained changing to explicit depressive thought for self.
IAT, Evaluative Conditioning, Depression, Implicit Depressive Cognition
To cite this article
Akihiro Masuyama, Kengo Yokomitsu, Yuji Sakano, Subliminal Evaluative Conditioning Changed Implicit and Explicit Depressive Cognition, American Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2017, pp. 15-21. doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.20170602.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press
Coyne, J., & Gotlib, I. (1983). The role of cognition in depression: A critical appraisal. Psychological bulletin, 94, 472–505.
Murrough, J. W., Iacoviello, B., Neumeister, A., Charney, D. S., & Iosifescu, D. V. (2011). Cognitive dysfunction in depression: neurocircuitry and new therapeutic strategies. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 96(4), 553–63.
Wiers, R. W., Teachman, B. A., & De Houwer. (2007). Implicit cognitive processes in psychopathology: An introduction. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.38, 95-104.
Gotlib, I. H., & Joormann, J. (2010). Cognition and Depression: Current Status and Future Directions. Annual review of Clinical Psychology, 27, 285–312.
Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4-27.
Monteith, L., & Pettit, J. W. (2011). Implicit and explicit stigmatizing attitudes and stereotypes about depression. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30, 484–505.
Aikawa, A. & Fujii, T. (2011). Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit shyness. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 82, 41-48.
Teachman, B. A., Marker, C. D., & Smith-janik, S. B. (2009). Change over the course of treatment. Jounal of Conslulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 988–1002.
Franck, E., Raedt, R. D., & Houwer, J. D. (2008). Activation of latent self-schemas as a cognitive vulnerability factor for depression: The potential role of implicit self-esteem. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 1588-1599.
De Raedt, R., Schacht, R., Franck, E., & De Hower, J. (2006). Self-esteem and depression revisited: Implicit positive self-esteem in depressed patients? Behavior Research and Therapy, 44, 1017-1028.
Meites, T. M., Deveney, C. M., Steele, K. T., Holmes, A. J., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2008). Implicit depression and hopelessness in remitted depressed individuals. Behavior Research and Therapy, 46, 1078-1084.
Teachman, B. a., & Woody, S. R. (2003). Automatic processing in spider phobia: Implicit fear associations over the course of treatment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(1), 100–109.
Ozaki, Y. (2006). Changing implicit attitudes by repeated approach or avoidance. The Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 98-110.
Gast, A., De Houwer, J., & De Schryver, M. (2012). Evaluative conditioning can be modulated by memory of the CS–US pairings at the time of testing. Learning and Motivation, 43(3), 116–126.
Dijkserhuis, A. (2004). I like myself but I don’t know why: Enhancing Implicit self-esteem by subliminal evaluative conditioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 345-355.
Kawakami, K., Dovidio, J. F., Moll, j., Hermsen, S., & Russin, A. (2000) Just say no (to Stereotyping): Effects of training in the negation of stereotypic associations on stereotype activation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 871-888.
Gawronski, B., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2006). Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 692-731.
Devine, P. G., Forscher, P. S., Austin, A. J., & Cox, W. T. L. (2012). Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1267–1278.
Lemmens, L. H. J. M., Roefs, A., Arntz, A., van Teeseling, H. C., Peeters, F., & Huibers, M. J. H. (2014). The value of an implicit self-associative measure specific to core beliefs of depression. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 45(1), 196–202.
De Raedt, R., Schacht, R., Franck, E., & De Houwer, J. (2006). Self-esteem and depression revisited: implicit positive self-esteem in depressed patients? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(7), 1017–28.
Grano, C., Muzi, M., Pompili, M., Erbuto, E., & Violani, C. (2016). Measuring the automatic negative self-schema: New evidence for the construct and criterion validity of the Depression Implicit Association. Self and Identity, 15(5), 599-613.
Creemers, D. H. M., Scholte, R. H. J., Engels, R. C. M. E., Pieters, S., & Wiers, R. W. (2013). Acute stress increases implicit depression and decreases implicit self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 4, 118-132.
Rinck, M. (2016). CBM research needs more power: Commentary on the special issue on cognitive bias modification. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.
Friedman, M. A., Nosek, B. A., Miller, I. W., Gordon, K. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2001). Implicit hopelessness and severity of depressive symptoms. Unpublished manuscript.
Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, A. B., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: I. An Improved Scoring Algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197-216.
Fuiji, T., Ikeda, R., Uebuchi, H. (2009). The priming effect on the achievement motivation. Bulletin of Tokyo Gakugei University. Educational sciences, 60, 131-139.
Greenwald, A. G., & Farnham, S. D. (2000). Using the Implicit Association Test to measure self-esteem and self- concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 1022-1038.
Fukui, I. (1998). Development of depression and anxiety cognition scale: toward the construction of a cognitive-behavioral model of depression and anxiety. Japanese journal of behavior therapy, 24, 57-70.
Grumm, M., Nestler, S., & Collani, G. Von. (2009). Changing explicit and implicit attitudes: The case of self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 327-335.
Roefs, A., Hujiding, J., Smulders, F. T. Y., MacLeod, C. M., Jong, P, J., Wiers, R. W., & Jansen, A. T. M. (2011). Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 149-193.
De Raedt, R. (2006). Activation of implicit self-schemas and a difficulty to disengage from negative cognitions in depression: An experimental psychopathology approach. Psychological Belgica, 46, 117-130.
Gawronski, B., & Strack, F. (2004). On the propositional nature of cognitive consistency:Dissonance changes explicit, but not implicit attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 535–542.
Teasdale, J. D., Moore, R. G., Hayhurst, H., Pope, M., Williams, S., & Segal, Z. V. (2002). Metacognitive awareness and prevention of relapse in depression: Empirical evidence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 275-287.
Peters, K. R., & Gawronski, B. (2011). Mutual influences between the implicit and explicit self-concepts: The role of memory activation and motivated reasoning. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(2), 436–442.
Hertel, P. T., & Mathews, A. (2011). Cognitive Bias Modification: Past Perspectives, Current Findings, and Future Applications. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 521-536.
Hallion, L. S., & Ruscio, A. M. (2011). A meta-analysis of the effect of cognitive bias modification on anxiety and depression. Psychological Bulletin, 137(6), 940–958.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186