Please enter verification code
The Effect of Group Training on Theory of Mind of Male Clients of Bahar Outpatient Addiction Treatment Center
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2017, Pages: 1-5
Received: Aug. 10, 2016; Accepted: Aug. 20, 2016; Published: Mar. 1, 2017
Views 1770      Downloads 110
Gholam Hossein Javanmard, Psychology Department, Payame Noor University (PNU), Iran
Article Tools
Follow on us
The theory of mind ability underlies the human ability to make complex social interactions. In this study, differences in the theory of mind ability of people with substance dependence and a normal group, and the effect of group training of this ability on addicted people were assessed. In this research, causal-comparative and semi experimental with a pretest and posttest method with a control group were used. For this purpose, 36 male subjects who referred for outpatient addiction treatment center and 36 healthy male people were selected and Baron-Chohen’s Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test was administrated in both groups. The group of drug dependence was divided into two groups of 18 people as experimental and control groups. For experimental group, group training sessions were conducted in 24 sessions. Ultimately, test of mind reading was administered as post-test to both groups. Data were analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of covariance. Data analysis showed that both healthy and dependent groups had significant differences in theory of mind (P < 0/05). Moreover, after theory of mind training implementation, along with other current treatments, experimental group scores differed significantly from the control group (P < 0/05). The study indicated that the group training increased the theory of mind scores, so, this kind of training could be the part of therapy of individuals with a substance abuse disorders.
Mind Reading, Addiction, Group Training, Theory of Mind
To cite this article
Gholam Hossein Javanmard, The Effect of Group Training on Theory of Mind of Male Clients of Bahar Outpatient Addiction Treatment Center, American Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2017, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.20170601.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Premack, D. & Woodruff, G., (1978). Does the Chimpanzee have a theory of mind? The Behavioural Brain Sciences, 1, 515-526.
Mitchell, I. J., Beck, S. R., Boyal, A., Edwards, V. R. (2011). Theory of mind deficits following acute alcohol intoxication. Eur Addict Res., 17 (3), 164-168.
Green, M., &Leitman, D. (2008). Social cognition in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 670-672.
Charlton, B. (2003). Theory of mind delusions and bizarre delusions in an evolutionary perspective: psychiatry and the social brain. In M. Brune, H. Ribbert& W. Schiefenhovel (Eds.). The Social Brain – Evolution and Pathology. John Wiley & Sons: Chichester, 315-338.
Whiten, A. (2000), Social complexity and social intelligence. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 223, 185-196.
Dunbar, R. (2003). The social brain: Mind, language, and society in evolutionary perspective. Annual Review of Anthropology, 32, 163-181.
Allman, J. M., Hakeem, A., Erwin, J. M., Nimchinsky, E., & Hof, P. (2001). The anterior cingulate cortex: The evolution of an interface between emotion and cognition. Ann N Y AcadSci, 935, 107–17.
Frith, C., & Frith, U. (2005). Theory of Mind. Current Biology, 15 (17), 644-645.
Thirion- Marissiaux, A. F., Nader-Grosbois, N. (2008). Theory of mind ‘‘emotion’’, Developmental characteristics and social understanding in children and adolescents with intellectual Disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 29, 414–430.
Krah, S., Paulus, F., Modden, M., Kircher, T. (2010). The rewarding nature of social interactions. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 4 (22), 1-3.
Insel, T. (2003). Is social attachment an addictive disorder? Physiological Behavior, 79, 351-357.
Koob, G. F. (2006). The neurobiology of addiction: A neuroadaptational view relevant for diagnosis. Addiction, 101, (1), 23–30.
Stuss, D. T, Gallup, G. G. Jr., Alexander, M. P. (2001). The frontal lobes are necessary for 'theory of mind'. Brain, 124, 279-86.
Berlin, H. A., Rolls, E. T., Kischka, U. (2004). Impulsivity, time perception, emotion and reinforcement sensitivity in patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Brain, 127, 1108–26.
Bechara, A. (2005). Decision making, impulse control and loss of willpower to resist drugs: A neurocognitive perspective. Nat Neuroscience, 8, 1458–63.
Reynolds, B. (2006). A review of delay-discounting research with humans: relations to drug use and gambling. Behav Pharmacol, 17, 651–67.
Crews, F. T., Boettiger, C. A. (2009). Impulsivity, frontal lobes and risk for addiction. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 93, 237–247.
Tait, D. S., Brown, V. J. (2007). Difficulty overcoming learned non-reward during reversal learning in rats with ibotenic acid lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex. Ann NY AcadSci, 1121, 407–20.
Boettiger, C. A., Mitchell, J. M, Tavares, V. C., Robertson, M., Joslyn, G. D. 'Esposito, M., et al. (2007). Immediate reward bias in humans: Fronto-parietal networks and a role for the catechol-O-methyltransferase 158 (Val/Val) genotype. J Neurosci, 27, 14383–91.
Tarkhan, M. (2012). Effectiveness of group stress inoculation training (SIT) on social self-efficacy and social anxiety of withdrawal addicts. Social Psychology Research Quarterly, 2 (5), 69-79.
Gitterman, A. & Salmon, R. (2009). Encyclopedia of Social Work with Groups. Routledge, New York and London.
Zabihzadeh, A., Najati, V., Maleki, G., Darvishilord, M., &Radfar, F. (2013). The study of the relationship between mind reading ability and big five factor of personality. Advances in Cognitive Science Quarterly, 14 (1).
Khorashad, B. S., Baron-Cohen, S., Roshan, G. M., Kazemian, K., Khazai, L., Aghili, Z., Talaei, A., Afkhamizadeh, M. (2015). The ‘‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’’ Test: Investigation of Psychometric Properties and Test–Retest Reliability of the Persian Version. J Autism Dev Disord., 45: 2651–2666.
Prevost, M., Carrier, M. E., Chowne, G., Zelkowitz, Ph. Lawrence Joseph, L., and Ian Gold, I. (2013). The Reading the Mind in the Eyes test: validation of a French version and exploration of cultural variations in a multi-ethnic city. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 10, 1-16.
Richard, B. (2001). Freud as philosopher: Metapsychology after Lacan. Routledge Publication. UK.
Volkow, N. D. Fowler, J. S. and Wang, G. J. (2003) The addicted human brain: insights from imaging studies. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111 (10).
Volkow, N. D., et al. (2002). Brain DA D2 receptors predict reinforcing effects of stimulants in humans: replication study. Synapse, 46, 79–82.
Goldstein, R. Z. Volkow, N. D. (2002). Drug Addiction and Its Underlying Neurobiological Basis: Neuroimaging Evidence for the Involvement of the Frontal Cortex. Am J Psychiatry, 159, 1642–1652.
Enayat, J., Javanmard, Gh., Mamagani, J. (2012). Comparison OF attentional bias toward opium in withdrawal and dependent people among the clients to health clinics and the community members of Narcotics Anonymous. Quarterly of Addiction Studies, 6 (23), 27-37.
Kreek, M. J., LaForge, K. S., & Butelman, E. (2002). Pharmacotherapy of addictions. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov, 1, 710–726.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186