Please enter verification code
Extraversion and Involvement in Risky Sexual Behaviour Among Students in Secondary Schools in Nyakach Sub-county Kisumu County, Kenya
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 5, Issue 6, November 2016, Pages: 89-97
Received: Oct. 17, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 1, 2016; Published: Dec. 30, 2016
Views 2558      Downloads 178
Omanyo Abraham Otieno, Department of Psychology, Maseno University, Kisumu, Kenya
Article Tools
Follow on us
Risky sexual behaviour is a common habit among young people in the world, but its relation with extraversion has not been explored exhaustively, especially in Kenya. The study aimed at establishing relationship between extraversion and involvement in risky sexual behaviour among students in secondary schools in Nyakach Sub-county using a Correlational research design. A multistage random sampling was used to determine a sample size of 46 schools (88%) and 390 students (22%). Data was collected using Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Risky Sexual Behaviour Questionnaires. The reliability of questionnaires was obtained through internal consistency, with Cronbach’s constant at 0.632 while validity through experts reviews. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentages and mean) as well as inferential statistics (Pearson Correlation). The major findings of the study showed a significant relationship between extraversion and involvement in risky sexual behaviour (r=0.786). In conclusion the relationship is very strong and positive hence extroverts are more likely to participate in risky sex. The study recommended that categorizing and profiling the students into their most dominant personality subtypes is one way that can be used to offer strategic counseling so as to handle various students depending on their personality subtypes.
Extraversion, Risky Sexual Behaviour, Personality and Strategic Counseling
To cite this article
Omanyo Abraham Otieno, Extraversion and Involvement in Risky Sexual Behaviour Among Students in Secondary Schools in Nyakach Sub-county Kisumu County, Kenya, American Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 5, No. 6, 2016, pp. 89-97. doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.20160506.18
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Annette, A., Petterson, K. O. and Ostergren, P. (2011). Experience of Sexual Coercion and Risky Sexual Behaviour among Ugandan University Students. Journal on Public Health. 20 (11) 527.
Annette, A, Elizabeth, C. G. and Ostergren, P. (2012). Youths Sexual Risk Taking Behaviour and Mental Health. A psychological Journal. 19 (2) 208–216.
Adrienne, T. &Bichsel, J. (2014), Association between self-rated health and personality US National Library of Medicine, National institutes of Health Ethn Dis Autumn: 24 (4): 418-422.
Anteneh, Z. A. (2013). Prevalence and Correlates of multiple sexual Partnerships among Private College students in Bahir dar City, North West Ethiopia. Science journal of Public Health; 1 (1): 9–17.
Asante, M. et al., (2014). Substance use and risky sexual behaviour among street connected Children. Journal of Psychology, 14 (6): 123-144.
Alvergne, A., Markus, J. and Charlotte, F. (2010). Personality and testosterone in men from a high fertility population. Personality and individual difference Journal. 49 (10) 840-844.
Berhan, Y. and Berhan, A. (2015). A Meta-analysis of sexual Behaviour among Youth in Developing Countries. Journal on AIDS Research and Treatment. 20 (15) 1–9.
Bareld, D. P. H. and Dijksta, P. (2011). Positive illusions about a partner’s personality and Relationship quality. Journal of research in personality, 45 (1) 37-43.
Booysen, F. R. & Summerton, J. (2011). Poverty, Risky Sexual Behavior Vulnerability to HIV infection: Evidence from South Africa. Journal of Health, population and Nutrition: 20 (4): 285-288.
Brodish, J., et al., (2011). Evidence of high risk sexual behaviour among infection drug users in Kenya. PLACE study. Public Health Journal, 8 (9) 112-123.
Camelia, K. and Joan, Y. C. (2009). Genetic determinants of financial risk taking. PLOS ONE. 4 (2): 4362
Centre for Disease Control and presentation (CDC) (2014). Sexual Risk Behavior:HIV, STD & Teen Pregnancy Prevention. Youth risk behavior surveillance-United states.
Contessa, J., Suarez, L., Kyriakides, T. and Nadzman, G. (2013). The influence ofsurgeon personality factors on risk tolerance: A pilot study. Journal of surgical Education. 70 (6) 806-812.
David, S. (2001). Introversion and extroversion: implications for depression and suicidality. Psychiatry journal. 3 (6): 444-450.
Denis, M. T. (2011). Weak states and successful elites: extroversion strategies in Africa. SWP Research paper 9.
Deresse, D. and Debebe, S. (2014). Magnitude of risky sexual behaviour among High School Students in Ethiopia. Journal of public Health and epidemiology.6 (7) 21–215.
Durvasula, R. and Reagan, P. (2015). Personality and sexual among Gaymen. In Chhabra (Ed), Proceeding of international conference on Cognitive and Behavioural Psychology (Pp 124–131) Singapore. Global Science for Technology Forum.
District Health Information Software (2014)
Ertac, S. and Gurdal, M. Y. (2012). Personality, group decision-making and leadership. Paper provided by KOC university-TUSIAD. Economic research forum. Paper with number 1227.
Eysenck, H. J. and Sybil, B. G. (1975). Eysenck’s personality inventory. Educational and Industrial testing services. San Diego California 92107.
Gong, E. (2015). HIV Testing and Risky Sexual Behaviour: The Nothing to lose effect. Royal Economic Society: London.
Gemedu, E. S. and Worku, B. (2014). Risky Sexual Behaviour for STI/HIV infection among Alakan University Student in Ethiopia. Science Post Print. 11 (85) 8–9.
Harbaugh, E. R. (2010). The effect of personality styles (level of introversion-Extroversion) on social media use. The Elon Journal of undergraduate Research in communication.1 (2): 70-75.
Hart, C. (2011). Good side of introverts. Kenya: the good side of introvrts.
Kaijaleena, S. (2008). University students attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Finland and Kenya. Academic dissertation. University of Oulu, Department of Medicine.
Kenya AIDS Survey Indicator report (2012). National AIDS Control
Kelleher, I. et al (2012). Psychotic symptoms in adolescence index risk for suicidal behaviour. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 69 (12): 1277-1283.
Krista, K. J., Jeffrey, H. H., Henry, L. M. and Paul, T. C. (2002). Personality path way to safe Sex: Personality, condom use and HIV risk behaviours. Journal of personality.36 (2): 117-133.
Luke, N. (2010). Risky Sex in Urban Kenya: The Bitter of Sugar Daddy Affair. Pop line Journal: 8 (4) 3–4.
Lubomir, C and Jana, C. (2015). Risk preference under acute stress. Job talk.KIE VSE prague.
Mulu, W. Mulat, Y. and Bayeh, A. (2014). Sexual Behaviour and Associated factors among Students in Bahir Dar University. Reproductive Health Journal. 11 (84) 1742–4755.
Merrit, C. J. and Ian, J. T. (2012). Personality, Self-Efficacy and Risk Taking in Porkuor.
University of Greenwich: Avery Holl Campus, London.
Marina, P. (2013). Association between Personality Traits, risk-taking on a behavioral task And Risk behavior. Diploma Thesis. Filozofskifakulfet UZagrebu, Department of Psychology. Japan.
McGhee, L. R., Ehrler, D. J. & Buckhaltt, J. (2012). TheRelation between five factorPersonality Traits and Risk taking behavior in Pre-adolescents. Scientific Research Psychology Journal, 3(8): 558-561
Nidhi, S. and Perna, P. (2010). Relationship between risk taking behaviour, personality and Sensation seeking tendencies among NCC cadets.10sr Journals. 20 (5): 75-79.
Otieno, C. J. and Okoth, R. (2015). Risky HIV Sexual Behaviour and depression among University of Nairobi Students. Annals of Generally Psychiatric Journal. 15 (14) 16.
Ondrej, K. and Geckova, A. M. (2010). Psychological and behavioural factors associated with Sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students. BMC Public Health Journal. 9 (15); 1471-2458.
Peterson, A. Geher, G. and Kaufman, S. B. (2011). Predicting preferences for sex act: which Trait matters and why? Evolution Psychology journal, 9, 371–389.
Rui, M. C., Monica, C. and Rui, F. O. (2015). Does personality moderate the link Between women’s testosterone and relationship status? The role extroversion and sensation seeking. Personality and individual differences Journal. 76 (15) 141-146.
Roy, A. (2000). Is introversion a risk factor for suicidal behaviour in depression? Psychological Medicine. 28 (6): 1457-1461.
Sarkis, S. (2014). Do extroverts really take more risks? Psychology today. Sussex publishers.
Schmitt, P. D. and Todd, K. (2008). Big five traits related to short-term mating: from Personality to promiscuity across 46 nations. Evolutionary Journal. 6 (2): 246-266.
Schmitt, P. D. (2010). The Big five related to risky sexual behaviour across 10 world’s Regions: Differential personality associations of sexual promiscuity and relationship infidelity. European Journal of personality. 189 (1): 301-319.
Shakerian, A. and Ali Mohammed, N. (2013). Investigating personality traits and premarital Affair with opposite sex among university studentsof sanandajcity. Procedia social and behavioral sciences journal 114 (21): 339-345.
Soboka, B. and Gemedu, K. (2015). Assessment of Risky Sexual behaviour among Arba Minch University Students – Arba Minch Town. Journal of child of child and adolescent Behaviour. 3 (1) 189-194.
Serder, T. (2011). The Big Five Personality Traits and Risky Sport Participation. Ege University. Social Behaviour and Personality Journal. 39 (8) 1105–1112.
Shuper, P. A, Narges, J. and Rehm, J. (2013). Personality as a Predictor of unprotected Sexual Behaviour among people living with HIV/AIDS. Springer Science Media. New York.
UNAIDS Report (2008). Report on global AIDS epidemic.
Verhulst, B. (2010). The nature of relationship between personality traits and political attitudes. Personality and individual difference. 49(10) 306-316.
Watson, A. E. and Pulford, B. D. (2010). Personality differences in high risk sport amateurs and instructors. Perceptual and motor skills. 99 (1) 83-94.
Zafar, S. and Meenakshi, K. (2012). Relationship between extroversion-introversion and Risk Taking in the context of second language acquisition. International Journal of Research studies in language learning.1 (1): 33-40.
Zietsch, B. P. et al. (2010). Generic and Environmental influence on risky sexualbehavior and itsRelationship with personality. University of Queens land Behavior genetics, 40, 12–21 (IF: 2.8). 2201–2796.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186