Comparing Psychological Playfulness between the Visually Impaired and the Sighted Students in Iran
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 127-130
Received: Jun. 16, 2014;
Accepted: Aug. 28, 2014;
Published: Nov. 10, 2014
Views 3295 Downloads 202
Mozhgan Jahanbakhsh, Department of Psychology, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Amir Ghamarani, Department of Special Education, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
This research was aimed at comparing psychological playfulness between the visually impaired and their sighted counterparts. This study was performed using comparative-causative method,and the statistical population included all 14-18-year-old visually impaired and sighted male and female students in Isfahan, Iran. A total of 40 visually impaired and 40 sighted students were selected using random sampling method. The research instrument was the Short Measure of Adult Playfulness (SMAP; Proyer ,2012b).The research data was analyzed using SPSS in descriptive and inferential statistic levels. The descriptive statistics included indexes such as frequency, average, and Standard deviation, while the T test was applied in inferential statistics section. The obtained result indicated no significant difference in psychological playfulness between the visually impaired and the sighted students. This can be seen as first evidence of comparing psychological playfulness between the visually impaired and sighted student. Data are interpreted within current literature and future research directions are given.
Comparing Psychological Playfulness between the Visually Impaired and the Sighted Students in Iran, American Journal of Applied Psychology.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2014, pp. 127-130.
Barnett, LA (1990). Playfulness: Definition, design, and measurement. Play and Culture, 3: 319–336.
Barnett, LA (1991). The playful child: Measurement of a disposition to play. Play and Culture, 4: 51–74.
Barnett, L. A. (2007). The nature of playfulness in young adults. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 43: 949–958.
Bozionelos, N, Bozionelos G. (1996). Playfulness: its relationship with instrumental and expressive traits. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 26:749-760.
Fredrickson, B.L .(1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2(3): 300–319.
Ghamarani, A., & Noori, S. (2006, a) Compared social skills among the blind students and their sited counterparts. Journal of Special Education, 45, 2-7. (Persian).
Ghamarani, A., & Noori, S. (2006, b) Compared self-image and its components among the blind students and their sited counterparts. Journal of Special Education, 49, 6-14.(Persian).
Glynn, MA, & Webster, J. (1992). The Adult Playfulness Scale: An initial assessment. Psychological Reports, 71, 83–103.
Glynn, MA, & Webster, J (1993). Refining the nomological net of the Adult Playfulness Scale: Personality, motivational, and attitudinal correlates for highly intelligent adults. Psychological Reports, 72, 1023–1026.
Hoben, M., & Linstrom, V. (1980). Evidence of isolation in the mainstream. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 74, 289-292.
Jackson, DN (1984). Personality Research Form manual. 23, 26–50. Port Huron, MI: Research Psychologists Press.
Krueger, A (1995). The Adult Playfulness Scale: A review. Psychology, 32, 36–38.
McConnell, S., & Odom, S. (1999). A multimeasure performance-based assessment of social competence in young children with disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 19(2), 67-74.
Nejati, V.(2011). Compare cognitive efficiency between the blind and sighted people.Ofoghe Danesh, Journal of Gonabad University of Medical Sciences and Healh,2,16-25. (Persian).
Proyer, R.T. (2011) .Being playful and smart? The relations of adult playfulness with psychometric and self-estimated intelligence and academic performance. Journal of Learning and Individual Differences, 21:463–467.
Proyer, R.T. (2012b). Development and initial assessment of a short measure for adult playfulness: The SMAP. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 15: 512–527.
Proyer, RT. (2012). A psycho-linguistic study on adult playfulness:Its hierarchical structure and theoretical considerations. Journal of Adult Develop, 19:141-149.
Proyer, R.T., Ruch, W. (2011). The virtuousness of adult playfulness: the relation of playfulness with strengths of character. Department of Psychology, Division on Personality and Assessment, 5: 522-2211.
Peterson, C., Seligman, M.E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Rettig, M. (1994). The play of young children with visual impairments: Characteristics and interventions. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 88, 10-420.
Ruch, W., Köhler, G. & van Thriel, C. (1996). ‘Assessing the "humorous temperament": Construction of the facet and standard trait forms of the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory — STCI’. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 9, pp.303-339.
Sacks, S. K., Kekelis, L. S., & Gaylord-Ross, R. J. (Eds.). (1992). The development of social skills by blind and visually impaired students: Exploratory studies and strategies. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.
Schaefer, C.E. , Gitlin, K.,& Sandgrund, A. (1991). Play diagnosis and assessment. New York: Wiley.
Skellenger, A., & Hill, E. (1994). Effects of a shared teacher-child play intervention on the play skills of three young children who are blind. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 88, 433-445.
WHO. (2010). International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
WHO. (2012). Visual Impairment and blindness Fact Sheet N° 282. World Health Organization.