Current Armenian Society: The Rise of Radical Attitudes
Volume 7, Issue 6, December 2018, Pages: 242-247
Received: Sep. 11, 2018;
Accepted: Sep. 28, 2018;
Published: Oct. 24, 2018
Views 1193 Downloads 85
Gevorg Poghosyan, Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Law, Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, Armenia
Vladimir Osipov, Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Law, Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, Armenia
Follow on us
This article discusses radicalism as a phenomenon that has become widespread throughout the world, extremism and terrorism that it engenders and the meaning, content and correlation of the key concepts as well as sources, root causes and manifestation forms of those phenomena. Effective fight against those intricate phenomena is hampered by the absence of their common interpretation and agreed-upon definitions and of a well-established methodological foundation for their research. Factors that generate and sustain radicalism and extremism include increase in social injustice and inequality, the growing scope of poverty, unemployment and corruption, the dismantling of the system of social guarantees, legal insecurity of person and property, refusal from democratic reforms, the strengthening of authoritarian tendencies, weak rule-of-law State and civil society, the disintegration of a traditional value system, latent and explicit normative conflicts, the lack of access to effective political and educational institutions, the impossibility to change the current state of affairs through democratic methods, the absence of channels for venting out discontent and unwillingness on the part of State entities and political actors to take public discontent into consideration. It is important to note that radicalism and support extremism are also boosted by unjustified and unlawful use of violence by State agencies as well as violation of fundamental human rights and freedoms of individuals that are suspected of committing terrorist acts and/or of holding membership in a banned extremist organization. The process of radicalization of the Armenian society has been going on for a long time. It can be accounted for by the fact that the public at large made certain demands as it had certain expectations for the authorities, while the authorities, in their turn, either reacted slowly, with a delay or did not react at all. In the quarter-century after gaining independence, Armenia experienced several outbreaks of political radicalism, which at times grew into extremist and even terrorist actions. The economic crisis, the blockade of roads, migration and unemployment serve as a fertile ground for the growth of protest sentiments, especially among Armenian youth. While youth activism is sometimes perceived with enthusiasm, it should be borne in mind that any social confrontation and civil disobedience have their inner logic of evolution. The situation may deteriorate progressively because radicalization is the most likely scenario in the dynamic of social confrontation resulting in widespread violence, chaos and disruption of social fabric.
Radicalism, Extremism, Terrorism, Armenian Society, Youth Movements
To cite this article
Current Armenian Society: The Rise of Radical Attitudes, Social Sciences.
Vol. 7, No. 6,
2018, pp. 242-247.
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Cross, Remy, and David. A. Snow. 2012. Radicalism within the Context of Social Movements: Processes and Types. Journal of Strategic Security 4 (4), p. 116.
Kravchenko, I. K. 2010. Radicalism. New Philosophical Encyclopedia. Moscow: Mysl Publishers, pp. 395-396 (in Russian).
European Parliament Resolution on the prevention of radicalisation and recruitment of European citizens by terrorist organisations (Adopted on 25 November 2015), para. B. Available online: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P8-TA-2015-0410+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN (accessed on 26 December 2017).
Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism (Adopted on 15 June 2001), Article 1.3. Available online: http://www.refworld.org/docid/49f5d9f92.html (Accessed on 26 December 2017).
Political radicalism. s.a. National Political Encyclopedia (in Russian). Available online: http://politike.ru/termin/radikalizm-politicheskii.html (accessed on 22 December 2017).
Radicalism and extremism in politics. 2014. Studopedia (in Russian). Available online: http://studopedia.org/6-44027.html (accessed on 26 December 2017).
Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism (Adopted on 16 May 2005). Available online: https://rm.coe.int/168008371c (accessed on 26 December 2017).
Republic of Armenia Law on Combating Terrorism (Adopted on 22 March 2005) (in Armenian), Article 5. Available online:http://www.parliament.am/legislation.php?sel=show&ID=2282&lang=arm (accessed on 22 December 2017).
International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (Adopted on 13 April 2005). Available online: https://treaties.un.org/doc/db/Terrorism/english-18-15.pdf (accessed on 26 December 2017).
International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (Adopted on 9 December 1999). Available online: https://treaties.un.org/doc/db/terrorism/english-18-11.pdf (accessed on 26 December 2017).
International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombing (Adopted on 15 December 1997). Available online: https://treaties.un.org/doc/db/Terrorism/english-18-9.pdf (accessed on 26 December 2017).
Kharitonov, I. N. 2012. Crisis of policies of multiculturalism and xenophobia in Europe. Sociological Almanac 3, p. 187 (in Russian).
European Parliament Resolution on the prevention of radicalisation and recruitment of European citizens by terrorist organisations (Adopted on 25 November 2015), para. N. Available online: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P8-TA-2015-0410+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN (accessed on 26 December 2017).
Plan of Action to Prevent Violent Extremism. Report of the UN Secretary-General. 2015, p. 6 (UN document A/70/674. 24 December 2015).
Kruglov, A. E., and N. N. Sedova. 2000. Motherland as a goal and value in the upbringing of youth. Educational work: Issues of reforming. Volgograd: Volgograd State Univ., pp. 32-35 (in Russian).
Poghosyan, G. A. 2016. Unfulfilled expectations for authorities led to radicalization of the society in Armenia. In Poghosyan, G. A. Sociological Demoscope. Armenia in the mirror of public opinion. Yerevan: Limush, pp. 756-758 (in Russian).
Poghosyan, G. A. 2015. Another Armenia. Golos Armenii, 72: 1-4 (in Russian).
Constitution of the Republic of Armenia (Adopted on 6 December 2015), Article 77. Available online: http://www.president.am/en/constitution-2015 (accessed on 26 December 2017)