Belief in Just World as a Predictor of Psychological Problems Among Hermaphrodites in Pakistan
This study examines belief in just world as a predictor of psychological problems among hermaphrodites in Pakistan. A total of 153 hermaphrodites (n = 132, junior members of community, n=21, senior members of community) were recruited through community-based organizations and referrals by snowball sampling technique. Personal BJW was measured by (Personal BJW Scale: developed by Dalbert and translated by Fatima & Khalid), general BJW by (Scales of Belief in Immanent and Ultimate Justice: developed by Maes and translated by Fatima & Suhail) and presence of feelings of depression, anxiety and stress by (DASS: Lovibond & Lovibond, translated by Aslam). Pearson correlation, step-wise regression was employed to analyze the relationship between Belief in Just World and psychological troubles. Significant results were found that high general Belief in Just World leads to increased risk of psychological problems and personal BJW decrease the level of depression, anxiety, and stress (psychological problems). The findings are helpful for therapeutic exercise as part of ongoing personal and general BJW growth they should be encouraged to readjust other aspects of lifespan as they see fit. Clinician can identify hermaphrodites’ problems and find out different ways that contribute to better adjusted in society and help them to use inner strength using personal and general BJW to come out of these psychological problems.
Belief in Just World as a Predictor of Psychological Problems Among Hermaphrodites in Pakistan, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences.
Vol. 9, No. 4,
2020, pp. 50-55.
Lerner M J. The belief in a just world: A fundamental delusion. New York: Plenum Press, 1980.
Dalbert C. The world is more just for me than generally: About the Personal Belief in a Just World Scale’s validity [J]. Social Justice Research, 1999, 12, 79-98.
Dzuka J, Dalbert C. Mental health and personality of Slovak unemployed adolescents: The impact of belief in a just world [J]. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2002, 32, 732-757.
Otto K, Boos A, Dalbert C, Schops, Hoyer J. Post-traumatic symptoms, depression, and anxiety of flood victims: The impact of the belief in a just world [J]. Personality and Individual Differences, 2006, 40, 1075-1084.
Sutton R M, Douglas K M. Justice for all, or just for me? More evidence of the importance of the self-other distinction in just-world beliefs [J]. Personality and Individual Differences, 2005, 39, 637–645.
Lovibond P F, Lovibond S H. The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories [J]. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1995, 33 (3), 335–343.
American Psychiatric Association. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association Publishing, Inc, 2001.
Seligman M E P, Walker E, Rosenhan D L. Abnormal psychology. (4th ed.), New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc, 2001.
Ohman A. Fear and anxiety: evolutionary, cognitive and clinical perspectives. In M Leiwis, J M Havilland-Jones (Eds.). Handbook of Emotions. New York: The Guilford Press, 2000, 573-593.
Barlow, David H. unrevealing the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the perspective of emotion theory [J]. American Psychologist, 2002, 6, 1247-1263.
Hintze J. Intervention for fear and anxiety problems. In M. Shim, H. M. Walker & G. Stoner (Eds.), Intervention for Academic and Behavior Problems: Perspective and Remedial Approaches, 2002, 939-960). Bethesda: National Association of School Psychologist.
Cohen S, Kessler R C, Gordon U L. Strategies for measuring stress in studies of the psychiatric and physical disorder. In: S. Cohen, R. C. Kessler, & U. L. Gordon, (eds.) Measuring Stress: A Guide for Health and Social Scientists. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1995, 3-26.
McEwen B S. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators [J]. New England Journal Medicine, 1998, 338 (3), 171-179.
Thapa S, Hauff E. Psychological Distress among displaced person during an armed conflict in Nepal [J]. Social Psychiatry Epidemiology, 2005, 40, 672-679.
Ritter C, Benson D E, Snyder C. Belief in a just world and depression [J]. Sociological Perspectives, 1990, 33, 235-252.
Dalbert C. The justice motive as a personal resource: Dealing with challenges and critical life events, 2001, New York: Plenum Press.
Brown J, Grover J. The role of moderating variables between stressor exposure and being distresses in a sample of serving police officers [J]. Personality and Individual Differences, 1998, 24, 181-185.
Dalbert C. Belief in a just world, well-being, and coping with an unjust fate. In L. Montada, & M. J. Lerner (Eds.), Responses to victimizations and belief in a just world, 1998, 87-105. New York: Plenum Press.
Benson D E, Ritter C. Belief in a just world, job loss, and depression [J]. Sociological Focus, 1990, 23, 49-63.
Cheung C, Kwok S. Conservative orientation as a determinant of hopelessness [J]. Journal of Social Psychology, 1996, 36, 333-347.
Correia I, Batista M T, Lima M L. Does the belief in a just world bring happiness? Causal relationships among belief in a just world, life satisfaction and mood [J]. Australian Journal of Psychology, in press.
Dalbert C. Beliefs in a just world as a buffer against anger [J]. Social Justice Research, 2002, 15, 123-145.
Lipkus I M, Dalbert C, Siegler I C. The importance of distinguishing the belief in a just world for self versus for others: Implications for psychological well-being [J]. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1996, 22, 666-677.
Cubela V, Prorokovic A, Gregov L. Neki tipovi valjanosti i pouzdanosti dviju skala vjerovanja u pravedan svijet, Radovi Filozofskog fakulteta u Zadru, 1999, 38, 133-148.
Kamble S V, Dalbert C. Belief in a just world and well being. Paper presented at the 12th Biennial Conference of International Society for Justice Research, 2008, Adelaide, Australia.
Fatima I. Beliefs in a just world and psychological well being. Unpublished M. Phil thesis, 2004, University of Punjab, Pakistan.
Dalbert C, Braun A. Coping with cancer: A study with adult cancer patients. University of Tubingen, 1997, Unpublished data.
Dzuka J, Dalbert C. Student violence against teachers: Teachers’ well-being and the belief in a just world [J]. European Psychologist, 2007, 12, 253-260.
Aslam N. Psychological disorder and resilience among earthquake affected individuals. Unpublished M. Phil Dissertation, National Institute of psychology, Quaid-i- Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2007.
Fatima I, Khalid R. Some aspects of reliability and validity of Beliefs in a Just World Questionnaire [J]. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2007, 5, 15-24.
Maes J. Immanent justice and ultimate justice: two ways of believing in justice. In L Montada, M J Lerner (Eds.), Responses to victimizations and belief in a just world, 1998, 9-40. New York: Plenum Press.
Fatima I, Suhail K. Belief in a just world and subjective well-being: Mothers of normal and Down syndrome children [J]. International Journal of Psychology, 2010, 45, 461–468.
Cubela V, Kvartuc T. Effects of mobbing on justice beliefs and adjustment [J]. European Psychologist, 2007 12, 261-271.
Donat, M., Peter, F., Dalbert, C., and Kamble, S. V. (2016). The meaning of students’ personal belief in a just world for positive and negative aspects of school-specific well-being. Social Justice Research, 29, 73–102.
Donat, M., Wolgast, A., and Dalbert, C. (2018). Belief in a just world as a resource of victimized students. Social Justice Research, 31, 133–151.
Lupfer M B, Doan K, Houston D A. Explaining unfair and fair outcomes: The therapeutic value of attributional analysis [J]. British Journal of Social Psychology, 1998, 37, 495-511.
Dalbert, C., and Donat, M. (2015). “Belief in a just world,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edn, Vol. 2, ed. J. D. Wright (Oxford: Elsevier), 487–492.