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From the Family to the State: Shifts in Manchukuo Female Education Principles (1932-1945)
Education Journal
Volume 8, Issue 2, March 2019, Pages: 57-62
Received: Feb. 6, 2019; Accepted: Mar. 21, 2019; Published: Apr. 18, 2019
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Wenwen Wang, Department of Integrated Sciences for Global Society, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
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In 1931 Japan occupied northeast China, and in 1932 created a puppet state which they named “Manchukuo”. The Manchukuo government began to formulate education policy immediately after its creation. Over the period of the state’s existence, Japanese occupiers adopted a changing set of educational systems to meet the changing demands of the colonial state. This study investigates the state’s main female secondary education objectives and principles, in the context of the state’s overall goals, dividing the era into three distinct periods. This study finds that while the idea of “Good wives and wise mothers” was used consistently throughout the era, the emphasis changed from more domestic and personal issues towards more public issues, including sacrifice for the good of the state, and an emphasis on strong ties with Japan. The image of an ideal woman changed from a more traditional, domestic one, towards one in which women were expected to take up some of the roles had traditionally been played by men.
Female Education, Manchukuo, Principle, Colonial
To cite this article
Wenwen Wang, From the Family to the State: Shifts in Manchukuo Female Education Principles (1932-1945), Education Journal. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2019, pp. 57-62. doi: 10.11648/
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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