Preparatory School Learners’ Level of Critical Thinking Proficiency and Its Correlation with Their Academic Achievement in Ethiopia: The Missing Ingredient
The present study investigated the level of preparatory school learners' critical thinking proficiency and its relation with their academic achievement. To the researchers' best knowledge, there is hardly any documented study exploring the relationship between these constructs among preparatory learners. To attain the purpose of the study, 108 grade 12 preparatory school learners from two sections (53 social science and 55 natural science majors: 56 male and 52 female students) were selected using a simple random sampling technique from Woldia Preparatory School. Data was collected through a critical thinking proficiency test adapted from “Cornell Class-Reasoning Test, Form X” (CCTT) and learners’ previous semester cumulative average. The data was analyzed statistically, employing Descriptive Statistics, Independent-Samples T Test, Pearson product-moment correlation, and linear regression. The results from the descriptive analysis showed that the critical thinking proficiency of preparatory school learners was weak, namely, most students lack critical thinking proficiency at this level. Moreover, the level of critical thinking didn’t vary significantly across majors and gender according to the independent-samples t test analysis. However, results from Pearson product-moment correlation indicated a fairly strong and positive correlation between critical thinking proficiency and academic achievement. The linear regression results also revealed that critical thinking proficiency act as the best predictor of academic achievement. The discussion and implications of the research are further presented with reference to the finding.
Preparatory School Learners’ Level of Critical Thinking Proficiency and Its Correlation with Their Academic Achievement in Ethiopia: The Missing Ingredient, English Language, Literature & Culture.
Vol. 4, No. 2,
2019, pp. 32-38.
Wade, C. (2008). Chapter 2, Critical Thinking: Needed Now More Than Ever (pp. 11-21), in D. S. Dunn, J. S. Halonen, and R. A. Smith (Eds.) Teaching Critical Thinking in Psychology: A Handbook of Best Practices. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN: 978-1-405-17402-2.
Hove, G. (2011). Developing Critical Thinking Skills in the High School English Classroom: A Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education. The Graduate School University of Wisconsin-Stout; May, 2011.
Jie, Z., Yuhong, J., and Yuan, Y. (2015) The Investigation on Critical Thinking Ability in EFL Reading Class. English Language Teaching; 8(1), pp. 83-94; E-ISSN: 1916-4750, doi:10.5539/elt.v8n1p83.
Ammons, J. H. and S. Friday-Stroud, S. S. (2009). Enhancing Performance in Critical Thinking: Quality Enhancement Plan, Prepared for Submission to the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges. Florida Agricultural & Mechanical University.
Snyder and Snyder (2008) Snyder, L. G. and Snyder, M. J. (2008). Teaching critical thinking and Problem solving skills. The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 1(2), pp. 90-99, Spring/Summer, 2008.
Facione, P. A. (2011). Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts: Two parallel rational decision making systems_ associational and criterion automatic and well trained, reflective. The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA.
Zahedi, M. and Razi, H. Z. (2014). Studying the Effect of High School Curriculum on the Growth of Critical Thinking Skill of High School Female Students in Larestan City in Educational Year 2013- 2014, Indian J. Sci. Res. 7(1), pp. 421-432; ISSN: 2250-0138 (Online).
Iakovos, T. (2011) Critical and Creative Thinking in the English Language Classroom. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(8); pp. 82-86. July 2011.
Lai, E. R. (2011) Critical Thinking: A Literature Review Research Report, June 2011 Pearson, Available at: http://www.pearsonassessments.com/research.
Tung, C. and Chang, S. (2009). Developing Critical Thinking through Literature Reading. Feng Chia Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, No.19, pp. 287-317.
VanTassel-Baska, J., Bracken, B., Feng, A. and Brown, E. (2009) A Longitudinal Study of Enhancing Critical Thinking and Reading Comprehension in Title I Classrooms. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 33(1), pp. 7–37. Prufrock Press Inc., http://www.prufrock.com.
Külekçi, G. and Kumlu, E. (2015) Developing Critical Thinking Skills in English Language Teaching Classes through Novels. International Journal of Language Academy, 3(2), pp. 76-90 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18033/ijla.222.
Marin, L. M. and Halpern, D. F. (2011) Pedagogy for developing critical thinking in adolescents: Explicit instruction produces greatest gains. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 6, pp. 1–13; Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.tsc.2010.08.002.
Reed, J. H. (1998). Effect of a Model for Critical Thinking on Student Achievement in Primary Source Document Analysis and Interpretation, Argumentative Reasoning, Critical Thinking Dispositions, and History Content in a Community College History Course. [A dissertation]. College of Education, University of South Florida.
Karbalaei, A. (2012). Critical thinking and academic achievement. Medellín – Colombia, 17(Issue 2) (May–August 2012), pp. 121-128, ISSN: 0123-3432.
EGRA (2002) Ethiopia Early Grade Reading Assessment (2010). Data analytic report: Language and early learning (EDDAT II). RTI International and the Center for Development Consulting.
Ethiopia Early Grade Reading Assessment (2014). Reading for Ethiopia’s achievement developed technical assistance (READ TA). RTI International: Report of Findings.
Amlaku B. Eshetie (2010, 19-21 November). Language policies and the role of English in Ethiopia. A presentation paper at the 23rd Annual Conference of IATEFL BESIG.
Dessie Wondifraw M. (n. d.). The Effect of Infusing Intellectual Standards of Critical Thinking on EFL Students’ Critical Reading Performance: Haramaya University, Ethiopia. Int. J. Innovative Ideas (IJII) 2232-1942 © www.publishtopublic.com.
MoE (2002). The education and training policy and its implementation.
Institute of International Education (2012). Enhancing the Quality of English Language Education in Ethiopia: Report on a Future Search Conference. An IIE Briefing Paper; MoE, IIE and Ambo University.
Wondimu, S., Skalicka, P. and Kostalova, H. (2010). A Modern Teaching Methods Manual for Primary and Secondary Schools. People in Need: Addis Ababa.
Yen, T. S. and Halili, S. H. (April 2015). Effective Teaching of Higher-Order Thinking (Hot) in Education. The Online Journal of Distance Education and e-Learning, 3(Issue 2), pp. 41-47. Retrieved from: www.tojdel.net.
Barjesteh, H., and Vaseghi, R. (2012). Critical thinking: A reading strategy in developing English reading comprehension performance. Journal of Sheikhbahaee English Foreign Language, 1(2), pp. 21-34.
Nordin, N. (2015). Critical Thinking As A Predictor Of Students’ Academic Achievement: A Study On Islamic Studies Students At Pahang Islamic College, Sultan Ahmad Shah, Kuantan Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 1, pp. 46-56 (June); ISSN: XXXX-XXXX.
Kamaei, A. and Weisani, M. (2013). The Relationship between Achievement Motivation, Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking with Academic Performance. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 3(4), pp. 121-127; ISSN: 2231-6345 (Online).
Sherafat, R. (2015). Critical Thinking, Reasoning, and Logical Concluding’ Abilities in relation to Academic Achievement among Indian Adolescent Students. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3, (Issue 1, No.9), pp. 145-155; ISSN 2348-5396 (e).
Housen, A. C. (2001-2002). Æsthetic Thought, Critical Thinking and Transfer. Arts and Learning Research Journal, 18(1), pp. 99 - 132, 2001-2002.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.