An Eight-Week Supervised Fitness Program in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among African-American College Students
International Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education
Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2018, Pages: 40-48
Received: Aug. 22, 2018;
Accepted: Oct. 31, 2018;
Published: Nov. 28, 2018
Views 802 Downloads 162
Hsin-Yi Liu, Department of Kinesiology and Recreation Administration, North Carolina Central University, Durham, USA
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death of all races in the United States. African-Americans are more likely to die from CVD than whites. One hundred and forty-six African-Americans college students were recruited from a historical black college (HBCU) in North Carolina. A fitness course (PEDU 1541) was required for all students at North Carolina Central University (NCCU). An eight-week program was designed by several certified fitness instructors who teach this course at NCCU. This study was to exam the effectiveness of an 8-week exercise program in reducing CVD risk factors, including cardiovascular fitness, waist circumferences, and body fat percentage (BF%). Students’ BMI, body composition, cardiovascular fitness, muscular endurance, and trunk flexibility were assessed before and after completion of this 8-week supervised program. All the pre- and post-measurements of the 146 students were compared with a paired-t test to see if there were any significant changes. After 8 weeks of participation in this program, all measurements except their body fat composition improved (p< 0.05). Students’ diet or calorie intake was not controlled during the program in this study. Therefore, no significant change was found in their answers to the modified questionnaire of health behaviors, including alcohol, tobacco, vegetable consumptions before and after they completed this 8-week fitness course. Therefore, increase physical activity level alone may not be sufficient to reduce all risks of CVD in African-American population.
An Eight-Week Supervised Fitness Program in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among African-American College Students, International Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2018, pp. 40-48.
American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2016 Update. Dallas, Texas: American Heart Association, 2016.
Mensah et al. An Overview of Cardiovascular Disease Burden in the United States. Health Affairs. 2007; 26(1): 38-48.
Potts JL, Thomas J. Traditionally coronary risk factors for African Americans. Am J Med Sci. 1999; 317(3): 189-92.
Smith SC Jr. Multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Am J Med. 2007; 120: S3-S11.
Carson JA, Michalsky L, Latson B, Banks K, Tong L, Gimpel N, Lee JJ, Dehaven MJ. The cardiovascular health of urban African Americans: diet-related results from the Genes, Nutrition, Exercise, Wellness, and Spiritual Growth (GoodNEWS) trial. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012; 112(11): 1852-8.
John D. Griffin, M. S. and Alice H. Lichtenstein, D. Sc. Dietary Cholesterol and Plasma Lipoprotein Profiles: Randomized-Controlled Trials. Curr Nutr Rep. 2013; 2(4): 274–282.
Robert JN, Arthur FS, Mark CK, Lori KH, D. Mark H, and Ernst JS. Effect of Dietary Fat Saturation and Cholesterol on LDL Composition and Metabolism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1990; 10: 119-28.
Lawrence JA. Lifestyle Modification as a Means to Prevent and Treat High Blood Pressure. JASN. 2003; 14 (suppl 2): S99-S102.
Morris, J. N., Clayton, D. G., Everitt, M. G., Semmence, A. M., & Burgess, E. H. Exercise in leisure time: Coronary attack and death rates. British Heart Journal. 1990; 63: 325–334.
Paffenbarger RS Jr. Contributions of epidemiology to exercise science and cardiovascular health. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1988; 20: 426–438.
Paffenbarger RS Jr, Hyde RT, Wing AL, Lee I-M, Jung DL, Kampert JB. The association of changes in physical activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men. New England Journal of Medicine. 1993; 328: 538–545.
Douglas D, Caroline R, Elizabeth AJ. Physical Activity and Exercise for Secondary Prevention among Patients with Cardiovascular Disease. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep. 2013; 7(6): 10.1007/s12170-013-0354-5.
Nocon, M., Hiemann, T., Muller-Riemenschneider, F., Thalau, F., Roll, S. and Willich, S. N. Association of physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Prev. Rehabil. 2008; 15, 239-246.
Paffenbarger RS Jr, Hyde RT, Wing AL, Steinmetz CH. A natural history of athleticism and cardiovascular health. JAMA. 1984; 252: 491–495.
Paffenbarger RS Jr, Jung DL, Leung RW, Hyde RT. Physical activity and hypertension: an epidemiological view. Annals of Medicine. 1991; 23: 319–327.
Riccardo DG, Simona Ci, Elena C, Marwan EG, Giulio M. Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies to Increase the Adherence to Exercise in the Management of Obesity. J Obes. 2011; 2011: 348293.
Jamerson T, Sylvester R, Jiang Q, Corriveau N, DuRussel-Weston J, Kline-Rogers E, Jackson EA, Eagle KA. Differences in Students Participating in a School-Based Health Promotion Program. Am J Health Promot. 2017; 31(4): 318-324.
Berry DC, McMurray RG, Schwartz TA, Adatorwovor R. Benefits for African American and white low-income 7-10-year-old children and their parents taught together in a community-based weight management program in the rural southeastern United States. BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1): 1107.
Harrell JS, McMurray RG, Bangdiwala SI, Frauman AC, Gansky SA, Bradley CB. Effects of a school-based intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in elementary-school children: the Cardiovascular Health in Children (CHIC) study. J Pediatr. 1996; 128(6): 797-805.
Peterson NE, Sirard JR, Kulbok PA, DeBoer MD, Erickson JM. Sedentary behavior and physical activity of young adult university students. Res Nurs Health. 2018; 41(1): 30-38.