Gender Differences on Cognitive and Affective Responses Within Tanzanian Physical Education Context Achievement Goal Approach
This paper examined gender differences in cognitive and affective outcomes of participation in PE in secondary schools in Tanzania. The study adopted achievement goal approach and involved 400 PE students (male =221: female = 179: M= 17.21 years, SD 1.69). A standardized questionnaires assessing goal orientation, purpose of PE, satisfaction and enjoyment in PE were utilized. Results confirmed the psychometric suitability of the research instruments when used in Kiswahili language. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis of variance indicated that there were significant gender differences between males and females in goal orientations and cognitive outcomes of participating in PE. Follow up univariate analyses indicated that males were higher in goal orientation, and believed that social status and enhanced lifetime health skills were important purpose of participation in PEthan females. On the other hand, females perceived social responsibility to be more important purpose of participating in PE than males. However, during participation in PE there were no gender differences in affective outcomes of satisfaction and enjoyment. Further analysisindicated that the goal orientation profiles of the individualinfluenced the outcome of participation in PE. The findings leads to a conclusion indicating that for Tanzanian PE students, gender differences have substantial influence on individual’s responses in PE. Gender was found to influence the socialization process in terms of achievement goal orientation. It is recommended that PE teachers should enhance task to fosterpro-social behavior. As more and more women are engaging in nontraditional sport such as soccer, rugby, boxing, taekwondo and weight lifting future study should examine the effect of this trend in terms of gender differences in PE and sport.
Cyprian Ngilisho Maro,
Gender Differences on Cognitive and Affective Responses Within Tanzanian Physical Education Context Achievement Goal Approach, International Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2018, pp. 16-26.
Mhando, S. (2015). Physical education and sport curriculum at teachers colleges in Tanzania: Appraisal of its implementation and development in Tanzania. Journal of Tourism Hospitality and Sports, 8, 1-12.
Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC) (2005). Physical Education Syllabus for Secondary Schools. Dar es Salaam: United Republic of Tanzania.
Mziray, S. &Kitta, S. (1996). The role and current position of Physical Education in Primary education in Tanzania. Papers in Education and Development, 17, 65-75.
MoEC (1995). Education and Training Policy. Dar es Salaam: United Republic of Tanzania.
Ministry of Education and Vocational Training ([MoEVT] (2009). Summary of Teachers training at certificate level for primary education. Haiba na Michezo, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.
Bukuku, A. (2017). Assessment on implementation of teaching “HaibanaMichezo” in public primary schools in Ileje Tanzania. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Bankobeza, A. (2015). The implementation of 'Haiba na Michezo" in Public Primary schools in Kinondoni Municipality in Dar es Salaam region. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Dar es Salaam:Tanzania.
Simbo, U. (2014). Contributions of PE and sports to moral development among secondary students. Unpublished master’s dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam.
Sangawe, E. (2015). Sport talent identification and development in primary schools in Tanzania. Unpublished master’s dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Mwasi, S. (2012). Haiba na Michezo sylabus in Tanzana:An assessement of the implementation. Dar es Salaam: Unpublished master thesis, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Salum, S. S. (2015). Secondary schools Students' and teachers' attitude towards physical education inTanzania. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Robert, A. (2014). The Contribution of sports Sponsorship to development of sports in educational Institutions in Tanzania. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Maro, C. (2011). The Purpose of Physical Education as Perceived by PE students: The Goal orientation approach. Papers in Education and Development, 30, 154-178.
Houlihan, B., & Green, M. (2006). The changing status of school sport and physical education: explaining policy change. Sport, Education and Society, 11, (1), 73-92.
Azzah, F. (2010, November 18th). “Sports in schools permitted, head of schools ordered”. Mwananchi Daily Newspaper, pp. 23.
Shehu, J., Akpata, D., Ogundare, O., Mziray, S. &Kirimbai, R. (2003). Tanzanian school girls, sport and patriarchal logic: Preliminary data from an exploratory study. Papers in Education and Development, 23, 86-109.
Jewett, A. (1987). The Purpose process curriculum framework. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 6, 195-226.
Massao, P. (2001). Women in Sport. Feminist Analysis of Sport Development Policy of Tanzania.: Unpublished masters thesis, Norwegian University of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
Kretschmann, R. (2014). The Purpose of physical education and their practical implications. Sport SPA, 11 (1), 25-28.
Ennis, C. (1985). Purpose and concept in an existing physical education curriculum. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 56, 323-333.
Ennis, C. (1994). Urban secondary teachers value orientations: Delineating curricular goals for social responsibilities. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 13, 163-179.
Papaioannou, A. (1990). Goal Perspectives, Motives for Participation, and Purpose of Physical Education lessons in Greece, as Perceived by 14 and 17 year old Pupils. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Manchester, England.
Lander, L. & Chapman, P. (1987). The likeability and utility dimensions of the purpose elements. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 6, 234-242.
Lee, A. M., Fredenburg, K., Belcher, D., & Cleveland, N. (1999). Gender differences in children's conceptions of competence and motivation in physical education. Sport Education and Society, 4, (2), 161-174.
Lenney, E. (1977). Women's self-confidence in achievement settings. Psychological Bulletin, 84(1), 1-13.
Clifton, R. T. & Gill, D. L. (1994). Gender differences in self-confidence on a feminine-typed task. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 16, 150-162.
Lirg, D. (1991). Gender differences in self-confidence in physical activity. A meta-analysis of recent studies. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13, (2), 294-310.
Atkinson, J. W. (1964). An Introduction to motivation. Princeton: IN, Van Nostrand.
Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory, American Psychologist, 44, 1175-1184.
Nicholls, J. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.
Maro, C. N., & Roberst, G. (2012). Combating HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa:Effect of Introducing a Mastery Motivational Climate in a Community -Based Programme. Applied Psychology:An international Review, 6 (4), 699-722.
Roberts, G. C. (2001). Understanding the dynamics of motivation in physical activity: The influence of achievement goals on motivational processes. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Advances in Motivation in Sport and Exercise (pp. 1-50). Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. London: Plenum.
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Handbook of self determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Maehr, M. &Braskamp L. (1986). The motivational factor. A theory of personal investment. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Duda, J. L. (1993). Goals: A social cognitive approach to the study of achievement motivation in sport. In R. N. Singer, M. Murphey, & L. K. Tennant (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology (pp. 421-436). New York: Macmillan.
Duda, J. L. (1994). Fostering active living for children and youth: The motivational significance of goal orientations in sport. Champaign: Human Kinetics.
Ames, C. (1984). Competitive, cooperative, and individualistic goal structures: A cognitive motivational analysis. In R. Ames & C. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education: Student motivation (pp 177-208). New York: Academic Press.
Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conception of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328-346.
Duda, J. L. (1992). Motivation in sport settings: A Goal Perspective Approach. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in Sport and Exercise (pp. 57-91). Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.
Dweck, C. & Leggett, E. (1988). A social cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.
Nicholls J., Patashnick, M., & Nolen, S. B. (1985). Adolescents’ theory of education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 683-692.
Duda, J. (1989). The relationship between task and ego orientation and the perceived purpose of sport among male and female high school athletes. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 318-335.
Roberts, G., Hall, H., Jackson, S., Kimiecik, J., &Tonymon, P. (1995). Implicit theories of achievement and the sport experience: Effect of goal orientations on achievement strategies and perspectives. Perceptual and motor skills. 81, 219-224.
Papaioannou, A. (1992). Students’ motivation in physical education classes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Manchester, England.
Papaioannou, A. (1994). The development of a questionnaire to measure to achievement orientation in physical education. Research Quarterly for Physical Education and Sport, 65, 11-20.
Papaioannou, A. and Mcdonald, A. (1993). Goal perspectives and purpose of physical education as perceived by Greek adolescents. Physical Education Review, 16, (1), 41-48.
Walling, M. &Duda, J. (1995). Goals and their association with beliefs about success and perception of the purpose of physical education. Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 14, (2), 140-156.
Papaioannou, A. (1998). Student’s perceptions of physical education class environment for boys and girls in Greece and perceived motivational climate. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69,267-275.
Roberts, G., Tressure, D., &Kavussanu, M. (1997). Motivation in physical activity context: achievement goal perspective. In M. Maehr & P. Pintrich (Ed.), Advances in the motivation and achievement (pp.413-447). New York: JAI press.
Louchbaum, M., & Roberts, G. (1993). Goal orientation and perceptions of sport experience. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15,160-171.
Roberts, G. &Ommundsen, Y. (1996). The effect of goal orientations on achievement beliefs and strategies in team sport. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Science and Sport, 6.46-56.
Liukkonen, J. (1998). Enjoyment in youth sports. A goal perspective approach. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
Scanlan, T. & Simons, J. (1992). The construction of sport enjoyment. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in sport and exercise (199-215). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Deci, E. & Ryan, R. (1980). The empirical exploration of intrinsic motivational process. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, (pp39-80). New York: Academic press.
Wankel, L. (1997). “Strawspersons” selective reporting and inconsistent logic: A response to Kimeicik and Harris’s analysis of enjoyment. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15, 98-109.
Vallerand, R., Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (1988). Intrinsic motivation in sport. In K. Pandolf (Ed.), Exercise and sport science reviews (pp.389-425), New York: MacMillan.
Gill, D., Gross, J., & Huddleton, S. (1983). Participation motivation in youth sports. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 14, 1-14.
Duda, J. Chi, L., Newton, M., Walling, M., &Catley, D. (1995). Task and ego orientations and intrinsic motivation in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 40-63.
Roberts, Treasure &Kavussanu, (1996). The orthogonality of achievement goals. Beliefs about success and satisfaction in sport. The sport psychologist, 10, 398-408.
Kavussanu, M., & Roberts, G. (1996). Motivation in physical activity context: The relationship of perceived motivational climate to intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18, 264-280.
Jackson S., & Roberts, G. (1992). Positive performance state of athletes: Towards a conceptual understanding of peak performance. The Sport Psychologist, 6, 156-171.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Telama, R., Laakso, L., & Yang, X. (1994). Physical activity and participation of young people in Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 4, 65-74.
Roberts, G., & Balague, G. (1991 sept.). The development and validation of the perception of success questionnaire. Paper presented at FEPSAC congress, Cologne, Germany.
Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Kavusanu, S. (1998). Perceived motivational climate and cognitive and affective correlates among norwegian athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 16, 153-164.
Scanlan, T., Carpenter, P., Schmidt, D., Simons, J., &Keeler, B. (1993). An introduction to the sport commitment model. Journal of Sport and Exercise psychology, 15, 1-15
Gill, D. (1988). Gender differences in competitive orientation and sport participation. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 19, 145-159.
Treasure, D. & Roberts, G. (1994). Cognitive and affective concomitants of task and ego goal orientations during the middle school years. Journal of sport and exercise psychology, 16, (1), 15-28.
Tabachnick, B. &Fidell, L. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (6thed.) Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Loy, J., Mcpherson, B., & Kenyon,, G. (1978). Sport and social systems. Reading Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.
Eagly, A. & Steffen, V. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of men and women into social roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 735-754.
White, S. &Duda, J. (1994). The relationship of gender, level of sport involvement and participation motivation to task and ego orientation. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 25, 418.
Coakley, J. (2009). Sport in Society: Issues and controversies. (12thed.). London: Mcgraw-Hill.
Thirer, J. & Wright, S. (1985). Sport and social status of adolescent’s males and females. Sociology of Sport Journal, 2, 164-171.
Adedeji, J. A. (1984). Women’s sport in developing countries. International council of Sports Science and physical education, 36-43.
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Flanagan, G., Miller, C., Reuman, D., & Yee, D. (1989). Self concept, domain values, and self-esteem: Relations and changes at early adolescence. Journal of Personality, 57, 283-310.
Marsh H. & Peart, N. (1988). Competitive and Coperative Physical Fitness training programs for girls: Effects on physical fitness and multidimensinal self-handicaping strategies. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 390-407.
Waddington, I., Malcolm, D., & Cobb. J. (1998). Gender stereotyping and physical education, European Physical Education Review, 4, 34-64.
Massao, P., & Fasting, K. (2003). Women and Sport in Tanzania. In I. Harmon-Tews, & G. Pfister, Sport and Women:Social Issues in International Perspectives (pp. 118-130). London: Routle dge &ISCPES.