Self-Versus Employees’ Appraisal of Managers’ Emotional Intelligence. The Case of Gweru and Kwekwe City Councils, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe
Frontiers in Cognitive Psychology
Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2017, Pages: 72-81
Received: Jun. 21, 2017; Accepted: Jul. 13, 2017; Published: Aug. 10, 2017
Views 71      Downloads 4
Vonai Chirasha, Department of Human Resource Management, Faculty of Social Science, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Crispen Chipunza, Department of Business Management, Faculty of Management Sciences, Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Lewis Dzimbiri, Department of Political and Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Science, Chancellor University, Zomba, Malawi
Article Tools
Follow on us
Emotional Intelligence has become increasingly popular as a management tool for boosting performance at work. Despite this popularity, there is no sustained research in Zimbabwe that substantiates the efficacy of emotional intelligence especially within municipality environments. Using Goleman’s four clusters of emotional intelligence self-awareness, emotional intelligence self-management, emotional intelligence awareness of others and emotional intelligence management of others managers rated themselves high as compared to employee ratings. The results indicate that managers may be clueless as to employee perceptions of their behaviour. It is important that managers constantly get feedback from those they lead so that they improve their attitude and behaviour. Using purposive and stratified sampling techniques, 32 managers and 400 subordinates participated in the study. The instrument that measured Goleman’s emotional intelligence through self-rating was reliable with Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficients ranging from emotional self-awareness 0.846, emotional self-management 0.886, emotional awareness of others 0.939 and emotional intelligence management of others 0.960. The instrument used by employees to rate managers was also reliable with the Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficients ranging from emotional intelligence self-awareness 0.807, emotional intelligence self-management 0.834, emotional intelligence awareness of others 0.858 and emotional intelligence management of others 0.945. The hypothesis that self-rating and others’ rating can-not be same was validated.
Goleman s Emotional Competence, Inventory (ECI) Self-Appraisal, Appraisal by Others, Cronbach s Alpha Reliability Coefficients, Accurate Reporting
To cite this article
Vonai Chirasha, Crispen Chipunza, Lewis Dzimbiri, Self-Versus Employees’ Appraisal of Managers’ Emotional Intelligence. The Case of Gweru and Kwekwe City Councils, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe, Frontiers in Cognitive Psychology. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2017, pp. 72-81. doi: 10.11648/j.fcp.20170203.12
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Alexander (2007), How to deal with a bad boss.
Avolio, B. J, & Yamarino F. (2002). Introduction and overview. In B. J Avolio and Yamarino (Eds), Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. New York. Elsevier
Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On emotional quotient inventory. Technical Manual. Toronto. Canada. Multi-Health Systems.
Bar-On, R. (2002). Bar-On emotional quotient inventory. Technical Manual. Toronto. Canada. Multi-Health Systems.
Bass B. M and Riggio R. E (2006). Transformational Leadership 2 edition. Mahwah N J Lawrance Erlbaum.
Bliss, S. E. (2011). The effect of emotional intelligence on a modern organisational leader’s ability to make effective decisions, Belleview University.
Boyatzis, R. E. (2000). Developing emotional intelligence. In Cherniss C. And Goleman D. (Eds), The emotional intelligent workplace. How to select for, measure and improve emotional intelligence in individuals, groups and organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Boyatzis, R. E. & Ratti, F. (2009). Emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies distinguishing effective Italian managers and leaders in a private company and co-operatives. Journal of Management Development. Vol 28 (9) 821-838.
Bradberry, T. & Greaves, J. (2004). Emotional intelligence appraisal: There is more than IQ, Technical manual update, San Diego. Talent Smart Inc.
Bratton M. And Mattes R (2001).” Support for democracy in Africa. Intrinsic or instrumental?” British Journal of Political Science (vol 31) 447-474.
Cherniss C. & Goleman D (2001). The emotional intelligent workplace. 1st Edition. Josey-Bass.
Cook, C. R. (2006). Effects of emotional intelligence on principals’ leadership performance. PhD Thesis, Montana State University.
Commonwealth Report 2004.
Dak, M. (2010). The human mind. (Accessed on 06-06-12).
Das, D. K. (2010). Another perspective of globalization. Journal of International trade law and policy vol 9 (1) 46- 63.
Dulewicz, V. Higgs, M. & Slaski M. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence. Content, construct & criterion-related validity. Journal of Management Psychology vol 18, 405-420.
Foo, M. D. Eifenbein, H. A. Tan, H. H. & Aik V. C. (2005). Emotional intelligence and negotiation. The tension between creating and claiming value. International Journal of Conflict Management. Vol 15, 411-429.
Goleman, D. (2002). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Gweru and Kwekwe City Councils Strategic Plans (2008-2012).
Kouzes, J. & Posner, B. (2006). A leader’s legacy. Jossey-Bass. Willey.
Lane, R. D. Sechrest, L. Shapiro, D & Kaszniak A. (2000). Pervasive emotion recognition deficit common in alexithymia and repressive coping style. Psychosomatic Medicine vol 62,492-501.
Mathews, B. (2006). Promoting emotional literacy, equity & interest in K53 science lessons for 11-14 year olds, the improving Science & Educational Development project. International Journal of Science Education vol 26, 3: 281-308.
Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey (Ed.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence. New York: Basic Books.
Mayer, J. D. Salovey, P. & Caruso D. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. Handbook of emotional intelligence. Cambridge, University Press.
Muir, R. (2013). Clueless at the top. Law people management, feedback (Accessed on 13- 10-13).
Muyia, H. M. (2009). Approaches to instruments for measuring emotional intelligence. A review of selected literature, Advances in developing human resources. Sage Publications. Vol 11 (6) 690-702.
Sala, F. (2002). Emotional competence inventory. Technical manual. Philadelphia, PA: Mc Clelland Center for Research, hay group.
Sala, F. (2002). Its lonely at the top: Executive’s emotional intelligence self (mis) perceptions). Consortium for research on emotional intelligence in organizations. (Accessed on 30-09-14).
Saporito, A. (2009). Exploring the dimensions of the non-profit leader. Journal of Philadelphia social innovations., (Accessed on 23-11-13).
Sen, S. (2008). Interpersonal skills through emotional intelligence. A psychological perspective. The Iefai University. Journal of Soft Skills vol 2: 25-30.
Serrat, O. (2009). Understanding and developing emotional intelligence. Knowledge Solutions. (Accessed on 27-10-12).
Simonns, K. (2001). Executive update: Emotional intelligence, What smart managers should know. The centre for association leadership.
Stern, R., Hyman, L., Martin, C. E. (2004). The importance of self-awareness for school councillors. Journal of Psychology vol 7 477-489.
Stys, Y. & Brown, S. I. (2004). A review of emotional intelligence literature and its implications for corrections. Research Branch Correctional Service of Canada.
Riggio, R. E., Murphy, S. E. & Pirozollo, F. J. (Eds). (2002). Multiple intelligence and leadership. Mahwah, N J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Roberts, R. D., Burrus J., Betancourt A. C., Holtzman S., Libbrecht N., Mac Cann C., Matthews G., Minsky J., Naemi B. & Schulze R., (2013). in press. Multimedia assessment of emotional abilities. Development and validation. Educational Testing Service Research Report. No. RR-13. Princeton N. J. Educational testing service.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-688-8931