The Potential of Minjingu Phosphate Rock for Water Defluoridation
International Journal of Science, Technology and Society
Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2016, Pages: 1-6
Received: Jan. 1, 2016; Accepted: Jan. 11, 2016; Published: Jan. 25, 2016
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Authors
Francisco Lucas Olambo, Tanzania Industrial Research and Development Organization, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Joseph Yoeza Naimani Philip, Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
James Epiphan Gabriel Mdoe, Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
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Abstract
In some parts of Tanzania, fluoride ion concentrations in potable water are higher than recommended by WHO. Consequently, searches for economically and technically viable strategies are required to address this problem. This work aims to determine the potential of phosphate rock mined from Minjingu area in Northern Tanzania as water de-fluoridatant. The results obtained are reported herein. The rock particles were chemically activated and then characterised by XRF, XRD and nitrogen physisorption. Results showed that the main component of chemically activated rock particles was calcium hydroxyapatite with Ca/P ratio of 1.55 whereas the main component of non-activated particles was calcium fluoroapatite (Ca/P ratio of 1.66). The results also indicated that activated rock material was mesoporous with a BET surface area of 57.4 m2/g. Results for water defluoridation showed that the material had a fluoride ion percentage removal of about 90%, when the adsorbent dose was 8 g, contact time of 30 minutes, initial fluoride ion concentration 5 mg/L, pH values of 6.0 to 7.2 and batch volume of 50 mL. The material could be regenerated using 1% NaOH and reused in the water defluoridation process. Therefore, Minjingu Phosphate Rock (MPR) is potential water de-fluoridatant.
Keywords
Water Defluoridation, Minjingu Phosphate Rock, Potable Water, Adsorption-Desorption Isotherms, Tanzania
To cite this article
Francisco Lucas Olambo, Joseph Yoeza Naimani Philip, James Epiphan Gabriel Mdoe, The Potential of Minjingu Phosphate Rock for Water Defluoridation, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsts.20160401.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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