A Geographic Information System Based Soil Loss and Sediment Estimation in Zingin Watershed for Conservation Planning, Highlands of Ethiopia
International Journal of Science, Technology and Society
Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pages: 28-35
Received: Oct. 20, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 3, 2014;
Published: Jan. 30, 2015
Views 3559 Downloads 371
Gizachew Ayalew, Amhara Design and Supervision Works Enterprise (ADSWE), Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Zingin watershed is one of the most erosion-prone watersheds in the highlands of Ethiopia which received little attention. This study was, therefore, carried out to spatially predict the soil loss rate of the watershed with a Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) adapted to Ethiopian conditions was used to estimate potential soil losses by utilizing information on rainfall erosivity (R) using interpolation of rainfall data, soil erodibility (K) using soil map, vegetation cover (C) using satellite images, topography (LS) using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and conservation practices (P ) using satellite images. Based on the analysis, the total annual soil loss potential of the study watershed Based on the analysis, the mean and total annual soil loss potential of the study watershed was 9.10 ton tons/yr and 57750.15 t/yr, respectively. About 78.31% (4969.63 ha) of the watershed was categorized none to slight class which under SLT values ranging from 5 to 11 tons ha-1yr-1. The remaining 21.69% (1376.48 ha) of land was classified under moderate to high class about several times the maximum tolerable soil loss (11 tons ha-1 y-1). The study demonstrates that the RUSLE together with GIS provide a good estimate soil loss rate over areas.
A Geographic Information System Based Soil Loss and Sediment Estimation in Zingin Watershed for Conservation Planning, Highlands of Ethiopia, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2015, pp. 28-35.
Akililu A. and Graaff De J.2007. Determinants of adoption and continued use of stone terraces for soil and water conservation in an Ethiopian highland watershed. Ecological Economics. 61:294-302.
Bewket W. and Teferi E. 2009. Assessment of soil erosion hazard and prioritization for treat, ment at the watershed level: case study in the Chemoga watershed, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Land degradation & development. Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/ldr.944).
Desmet P.J.J. and G. Govers.1996. A GIS procedure for automatically calculating the USLE LS factor on topographically complex landscape units. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 51.5:427-433.
DSA (Development Studies Associates) and SCI (Shawel Consult International).2006. Potential Survey, Identification of Opportunities and Preparations of Projects Profiles and Feasibility Studies. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Central Agricultural Census Commission (ECACC).2002. Report on Preliminary Results of Area, Production and Yield of Temporary Crops (Meher Season Private Peasant Holding), Part II, on Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
FAO and UNEP.1984. Provisional Methodology for Assessment and Mapping of Desertification.
FAO.1984. Ethiopian Highland reclamation Study (EHRS). Final Report, Vol. 1-2.Rome.
FAO.1989. Reconnaissance Physical Land Evaluation in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Gebreselasie, E.D., (1996). Soil erosion hazard assessment for land evaluation. Soil Conservation Research Program, University of Bern, Switzerland and the Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia. MSc Thesis, 1996:68-82.
Hellden U.1987. An Assessment of Woody Biomass, Community Forests, Land Use and Soil Erosion in Ethiopia, Lund University Press, Lund.
Hurni H.1985.Erosion-Productivity-Conservation Systems in Ethiopia. Proceedings 4th International Conference on Soil Conservation, Maracay, Venezuela, 654-674.
Hurni H.1993. Land degradation, famine, and land resource scenarios in Ethiopia. In: Pimentel D. (Ed.) World soil erosion and conservation.Cambridge Univ. Press, 89-97.
Julien PY, Frenette M (1998). Physical Processes Groverning Reservoir Sedimentation.
Conference on Reservoir Sedimentation (pp. 121-142). Fort Collins, Colorado: Colorado State University.
Kaltenrieder J. 2007. Adaptation and Validation of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) for the Ethiopian-Eritrean Highlands.MSc Thesis, University of Berne,Centre for Development and Environment Geographisches Institut.
Mati BM, Morgan RPC, Gichuki FN, Quinton JN, Brewer TR, Liniger HP. 2000. Assessment of erosion hazard with the USLE and GIS: A case study of the Upper Ewaso Ng’iro North basin of Kenya. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 2: 1–9.
Mellerowicz KT, RessHW, Chow TL, Ghanem I. 1994. Soil conservation planning at the watershed level using the Universal Soil Loss Equation with GIS and microcomputer technologies: A case study. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 49: 194–200.
Mitiku H. Kjell E., Tor-Gunnar V. and Yibabe T.2002. Soil conservation in Tigray, Ethiopia, Noragric Report No. 5.
Morgan, R.P.C.1994. Soil Erosion and Conservation. Silsoe College, Cranfield University.
Morgan RPC.2005. Soil Erosion and Conservation (3rd edn). Blackwell Science: Oxford.
Renard, K.G., Foster, G.R., Weesies, G.A., McCool, D.K. and Yoder, D.C.1996. Predicting Soil Erosion by Water: A Guide to Conservation Planning with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). USDA, Washington,DC.
Renard K.G., Foster, G.R., Weesies G.A., McCool D.K., Yoder D.C.1997. Predicting soil erosion by water-a guide to conservation planning with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE).
Renard K, Foster GR, Wessies GA, Porter JP.1994. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 46:30-33.
Robert P. S. and Hilborn D.2000. Factsheet: Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE).Index No-572/751,Queen,s printer for Ontario.
Sertu S.2000. Degraded Soil of Ethiopia and their management. Proceeding of FAO/ISCW expert consultation on management of degraded soils in Southern and East Africa. 2nd network meeting, 18-22 September 2000. Pretoria.
Sutcliff JP (1993). Economic assessment of land degradation in the Ethiopian highlands: A case study. National conservation strategy secretariat, Ministry of planning and economic development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Tamene L.2005.Reservoir siltation in the drylands of northern Ethiopia: causes, source areas and management options. PhD Thesis, Ecology and Development Series 30, Center for Development Research, University of Bonn. 84-138.
Wang G, Hapuarachchi P, Ishidaira H, Kiem AS, Takeuchi K (2009) Estimation of soil erosion and sediment yield during individual rainstorms at catchment scale. Water Resource Manag. 23: 1447–1465.
Wischmeier WH, Smith DD.1978. Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses-A Guide to Conservation. Agricultural Handbook 537. US Department of Agriculture: Washington, DC.