Suitability of Tanzanian Kaolin, Quartz and Feldspar as Raw Materials for the Production of Porcelain Tiles
International Journal of Science, Technology and Society
Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 201-209
Received: Nov. 25, 2014;
Accepted: Dec. 11, 2014;
Published: Dec. 22, 2014
Views 3218 Downloads 266
Vivian Kimambo, Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam, P. O. Box 35061, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Joseph Yoeza Naimani Philip, Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam, P. O. Box 35061, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Ester Hellen Lugwisha, Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam, P. O. Box 35061, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Kaolin and quartz from Pugu; and feldspar from Morogoro were investigated to determine their suitability as raw materials for the production of porcelain tiles. From the mineralogical analysis, kaolin sample was found to contain kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and quartz (SiO2); quartz sample was found to contain only quartz mineral silica (SiO2); and feldspar sample was found to contain albite (NaAlSi3O8) and microcline (KAlSi3O8). The major chemical compounds found in kaolin and feldspar were SiO2 and Al2O3, and quartz sample was found to contain SiO2 and SO3. The tiles made from the raw materials and fired between 900 °C and 1200 °C were found to have the water absorption of 12.4 - 13.7%, bulk density of 1.89-1.95 g/cm3, apparent porosity of 24.1-26.0%, linear shrinkage of 0.0-1.7%, compressive strength of 107.4-380.4 kg/cm2 and loss on ignition of 3.6-6.0%. Among the studied compositions and firing temperatures, tiles made from a blend containing 40% kaolin, 45% feldspar and 15% quartz; and fired at 1100 °C were found to have the best properties for the production of porcelain tiles. This is an indication that the Tanzanian kaolin, quartz and feldspar are suitable raw materials for the production of porcelain tiles.
Joseph Yoeza Naimani Philip,
Ester Hellen Lugwisha,
Suitability of Tanzanian Kaolin, Quartz and Feldspar as Raw Materials for the Production of Porcelain Tiles, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society.
Vol. 2, No. 6,
2014, pp. 201-209.
Lee W. E. and Y. Iqbal, “Influence of Mixing on Mullite Formation in Porcelain”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 21, No. 14, pp. 2583-2586, 2001.
I. Mahaboonpachai and T. Matsumoto, “Investigation of Interfacial Resistance between Concrete and Polymer-Cement Mortar and Development of Constitutive Material Model for the Interface,” j appl mech, Vol. 8, pp. 1-9, 2005.
A. D. Noni Jr., D. Hotza, V. C. Soler and E. S. Vilches, “Influence of Composition on Mechanical Behaviour of Porcelain Tile. Part 1: Microstructural Characterization and Developed Phases after Firing,” Mat. Sci. Eng. A,Vol. 527, pp. 1730-1735, 2010.
C. M. F. Vieira, S. N. Monteiro, “Evaluation of a Plastic Clay from the State of Rio de Janeiro as a Component of Porcelain Tile Body,” Revista Materia, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 1 – 7, 2007.
H. Celik, “Effect of Spray-Dried Powder Granularity on Porcelain Tile Properties,” J. Ceram. Process Res., Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 483 – 487, 2011.
E. Sánchez, M. J. Ibáñez, J. Garcí-Ten, M. F. Quereda, I. M. Hutchings and Y. M. Xu “Porcelain Tile Microstructure: Implications for Polished Tile Properties,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 26, pp. 2533-2540, 2006
F. Andreola, L. Barbieri, A. Corradi, I. Lancellotti and T. Manfredini, “Utilization of Municipal Incinerator Grate Slag for Manufacturing Porcelainized Stoneware Tiles Manufacturing,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 22, pp. 1457–1462, 2002
A. J. Bloodworth, D. J. Morgan and D. A. Briggs, “Laboratory Processing Trials on Kaolin-Bearing Sandstones from Pugu, Tanzania, Using Conventional and New Hydrocyclone Bodies, Clay Miner., Vol. 24, pp. 539-548, 1989
L. D. Akwilapo and K. Wiik, “Ceramic Properties of Pugu Kaolin Clays. Part I: Porosity and Modulus of Rupture,” B. Chem. Soc. Ethiopia, Vol. 17, pp. 147-154, 2003
E. H. J. Lugwisha, “Thermal and X-Ray Investigations of Kowak Clay in Northwestern Tanzania and its Possible Industrial Use,” Tanz. J. Sci., Vol. 32, pp. 81-89, 2006
United Nations Environment programme, “Eastern Africa Atlas of Coastal Resources Tanzania,” A Project of the United Nations Environment Programme with the Support of the Government of Belgium, pp. 1-117, 2001
C. Barrie, “Minerals explained I—Rock forming silicate minerals I,” Blackwell Publishing Ltd. The Geologists’ Association & The Geological Society of London, pp. 1-7, 2012
R. L. Rudnick and S. Gao, “Composition of the Continental Crust,” Treatise on Geochemistry, Vol. 3, 2003: pp. 1-64
Y. W. Shaghude “The Study of Sediment Characteristics and Nearshore Sediment Dynamics in Coastal Tanzania,” Institute of Marine Science, University of Dar es Salaam, pp. 1-42, 2004
Society for International Development, “The Extractive Resource Industry in Tanzania. Status and Challenges of the Mining Sector,” pp. 1-89, 2009
ASTM C373-88, “Standard Test method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity and Apparent specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products,” pp. 1-2, 2006.
G. Viruthagiri, R. Gobi and B. Rajamannan, “Mechanical Properties Related to Use of Glass Waste as a Raw Material in Porcelain Stoneware Tile Mixtures,” Recent Research in Science and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 52–57, 2009
O. A. Olasupo and J. O. Borode, “Development of Insulating Ramming Mass from Some Nigerian Refractory Raw Materials,” Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 9, pp. 667-678, 2009.
E. H. J. Lugwisha, “Identification of Clay Minerals of the Eastern Southern Region of Lake Victoria by Ethylene Glycol and Heat: X-Ray Diffraction and Infrared Specroscopy Studies,” Tanz. J. Sci., Vol. 37, pp. 167 – 178, 2011.
W. Harris and N. White, “X-Ray Diffraction Techniques for Soil Mineral Identification,” Soil Science Society of America. University of Florida, Gainesville, pp. 1-36, 2007.
G. Ohmsen “Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction and Chemical Analysis of TSP and PM10 Filters Collected from Hummock Hill, Walls Street and Civic Park, Whyalla,” Environmental Health Service. South Australian Department of Health. Government of South Australia, pp. 1-56, 2004.
A. Mannan, “Stratigraphic Evolution and Geochemistry of the Neogene Surma Group, Surma Basic, Sylhet, Bangladesh.” Department of Geology. University of Oulu. pp. 1-190, 2002.
SI Siafu “Suitability of Kaolin and Quartz from Pugu and Feldspar from Morogoro as Raw Materials for the Production of Feldspathic Dental Porcelain. M.Sc (Chemistry) Dissertation. University of Dar-es-Salaam”, 2012
G. Anbalagan, A. R. Prabakaran and S. Gunasekaran, “Spectroscopic Characterization of Indian Standard Sand,” Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, Vol. 77, No. 1, pp. 86-94, 2012.
Y. Iqbal, “On the Glassy Phase in Tri-axial Porcelain Bodies,” Journal of the Pakistan Materials Society, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 62-71, 2008.
S. Karaman, S. Ersahin and H. Gunal, “Firing Temperature and Firing Time Influence on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Clay Bricks,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. Vol. 65, pp 153-159, 2006.
S. Mustafi, M. Ahsan, A. H. Dewan, S. Ahmed, N. Khatun and N. Absar “Effect of Waste Glass Powder on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Tiles.” Bangladesh J. Sci. Res. Vol. 24, pp 169-180, 2011.
S. K. Das and K. Dana, “Differences in Densification Behaviour of K- and Na-Feldspar-Containing Porcelain Bodies,” Thermochim. Acta. Vol. 406, pp 199-206, 2003.
C. Y. Chen, G. S. Lan and W. H. Tuan, “Microstructural Evolution of Mullite During the Sintering of Kaolin Powder Compacts,” Ceram. Int. Vol. 26 pp 715-720 2000.
I. A. Aksay, D. M. Dabbs and M. Sarikaya, “Mullite for Structural, Electronic and Optical Applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. Vol. 74, pp 2343-2358, 1991.
C. Leonelli, F. Bondioli, P. Veroseni, M. Romagnoli, T. Manfredini, G. C. Pellacani and V. Cannillo, “Enhancing the Mechanical Properties of Porcelain Stoneware Tiles: A Microstructural Approach,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. Vol. 21, pp 785-793, 2001.