A Review of Research on Crime Displacement Theory
International Journal of Business and Economics Research
Volume 3, Issue 6-1, December 2014, Pages: 22-30
Received: Sep. 27, 2014; Accepted: Oct. 13, 2014; Published: Dec. 11, 2014
Views 4724      Downloads 304
Author
Ching Eng Leong, Faculty of Social Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Reppetto (1976) published crime displacement theory in Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency and put forward his theoretical underpinnings for the future analysis of crime displacement phenomenon and outlined five types of crime displacement such as: 1. Temporal - Committing the intended crime at a different time; 2. Tactical - Committing the intended crime in a different way; 3. Target - Committing the intended crime type on a different target; 4. Spatial - Committing the intended crime type to the same target in a different place; 5. Functional - Committing a different type of crime. Research on crime displacement began to be carried out in a more systematic manner during the 1990s. There was a significant step forward when research in 1990 and 1993 specifically studied displacement and found it to be much less of problem than had generally been supposed. Crime displacement occurred where it was most likely to be similar targets or to similar and adjacent areas. Although the findings were greatly positive, there was and not surprisingly, variation between different crimes. Research has consistently found that crime displacement is the exception rather than the rule and that diffusion of benefits is just as likely and sometimes more likely to occur. Research also shows that crime displacement is unlikely in the aftermath of broader community development programs. In cases where some displacement occurs it tends to be less than the gains achieved by the response and found that crime displacement and diffusion are equally likely to occur. The theory of crime displacement is related to rational choice theory and there are three assumptions regarding the potential perpetrator and the target. The theory of crime displacement does not explain the reason of perpetrators committing a certain crime or why some crimes are more attractive to them than others. Crime displacement can occur in different ways or methods. An often-stated opinion about crime displacement is the theory, its practical usages, that it can induce a sense of disbelief towards crime prevention initiatives.
Keywords
Crime Displacement, Types of Crime Displacement, Rational Choice Theory, Perpetrators, Criminal Patterns
To cite this article
Ching Eng Leong, A Review of Research on Crime Displacement Theory, International Journal of Business and Economics Research. Special Issue: Supply Chain Management: Its Theory and Applications. Vol. 3, No. 6-1, 2014, pp. 22-30. doi: 10.11648/j.ijber.s.2014030601.14
References
[1]
Armitage, Rachel (1999). An evaluation of Secured by Design Housing Schemes throughout the West Yorkshire Area, The University of Huddersfield: The applied criminology group
[2]
Barr, R. & Pease, K. (1990). Crime Placement, Displacement and Deflection in Tonry, M. & Morris, N. (Eds.) Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 12, Chicago: University of Chicago Press
[3]
Barr, R. & Pease, K. (1992). A place for every crime in its place: An alternative perspective on crime displacement in Evans, D.J., Fyfe, N.R. & Herbert, D.T. (Eds.). Crime, Policing and Place. Essays in Environmental Criminology, London, UK: Routledge
[4]
Bodman, P. & Maultby, C. (1997). Crime, punishment and deterrence in Australia, International Journal of Social Economics, 24, 884-901
[5]
Braga, Anthony (2007). Effects of Hot Spots Policing on Crime, A Campbell Collaboration Systematic Review
[6]
Braga, Anthony & Brenda, J. Bond (2008). Policing crime and disorder hot Spots: A Randomized controlled trial, Criminology, 46, 577-607
[7]
Barron, J.M. (1991). Repulsive and attractive displacement paper presented to the American Society of Criminology, San Francisco
[8]
Brantingham, Patricia L., & Paul J. Brantingham (1993). Nodes, paths and edges: Considerations on the complexity of crime and the physical environment. Environmental Psychology, 13, 3-28
[9]
Brown, Jon (1999). An Evaluation of the Secured by Design Initiative in Gwent, South Wales, Unpublished Dissertation, University of Leicester
[10]
Caulkins, J.P. (1992). Thinking about displacement in drug markets: Why observing change of Venue isn’t enough? in Journal of Drug Issues
[11]
Clarke, Ronald V. (1992). Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston
[12]
Clarke, Ronald V. (1998). Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies (2nd ed.). Albany, NY: Harrow & Heston
[13]
Clarke, Ronald V. (1999). Hot products: Understanding, anticipating and reducing demand for stolen goods, Police Research Series Paper 112, London: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate
[14]
Clarke, Ronald.V. & Homel, R. (1997). A Revised Classification of Situational Crime Prevention Techniques in Lab, S.P. (Ed.), Crime Prevention at a Crossroads, Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co
[15]
Clarke, Ronald V. & Weisburd, D. (1994). Diffusion of crime control benefits in Crime Prevention Studies, ed. R.V. Clarke, 165-183. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press
[16]
Cohen, Lawrence E. & Felson, Marcus (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A Routine Activity Approach, American Sociological Review, 44, 588-608
[17]
Cook, Philip J. & MacDonald, John (2010). Mobilizing Private Inputs for Crime Prevention. This paper was prepared for the NBER Economical Crime Control Conference, held at UC Berkeley on January 15th and 16th, 2010
[18]
Cornish, Derek B. (1994). The procedural analysis of offending and its relevance for situational prevention in Crime Prevention Studies, 3, Clarke, R.V. & Monsey, (Eds.), New York, Criminal Justice Press
[19]
Cornish, Derek B. & Ronald V. Clarke (1986). In: D.B. Cornish and R.V. Clarke (Eds.). The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Offending. New York: Springer-Verlag
[20]
Cornish, Derek B. & Ronald V. Clarke (1987). Understanding Crime Displacement: An Application of Rational Choice Theory, Criminology, 25(4), 933-947
[21]
Cornish, Derek, B. & Ronald V. Clarke (1990). Crime specialization in crime displacement and rational choice in Wegener, H. (Eds.). Criminal Behavior and the Justice System, New York: Springer-Verlag
[22]
Cornish, Derek, B. & Ronald V. Clarke (2003). Opportunities, precipitators and criminal decision in M. J. Smith & D. B. Cornish (Eds.), Crime Prevention Studies, 16, 41-96, Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press
[23]
Crawford, Adam (1998). Crime Prevention and Community Safety: Politics, policies and practice, London: Longman
[24]
Dingle, J. (2005). Displacement Theory, Cargo Security International, 3(5)
[25]
Eck, John E. (1993). The threat of crime displacement, Criminal Justice Abstracts, 25, 527-546
[26]
Ekblom, P. (1989). Evaluation: The Management of Uncertainty, Paper presented at the British Criminology Conference
[27]
Ekwall, Daniel (2009). The displacement effect in cargo theft, International Journal of Physical, Distribution & Logistics Management, 39(1), 47-62
[28]
Ekwall, Daniel & Lumsden, K. (2007). Differences in stakeholder opinion regarding antagonistic gateways within the transport network, Proceedings of Nofoma, Reykjavik, Iceland
[29]
Felson, Marcus (1994). A Crime Prevention Extension Service, Crime Prevention Studies, 3
[30]
Felson, Marcus & Clarke, Ronald V. (1998). Opportunity makes the thief: Practical theory for crime prevention, Police Research Series Paper 98; London: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate
[31]
Gabor, Thomas (1981). The crime displacement hypothesis: An empirical examination. Crime and delinquency, 26, 390-404
[32]
Gabor, Thomas (1990). Crime displacement and situational prevention: Towards the development of some principles, Canadian Journal of Criminology, 32, 41-74
[33]
Gary Kleck & Don Kates (2001). Armed: New Perspectives on Guns, Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books
[34]
Guerette, Rob, T. & Bowers, K.J. (2009). Assessing the extent of crime displacement and diffusion of benefits: A review of situational crime prevention evaluations, Criminology, 47(4), 1331-1368
[35]
Guerette, Rob T., Vanja Stenius & Jean, McGloin (2005). Understanding offending specialization and versatility: A re-application of the rational choice perspective, Journal of Criminal Justice, 33(1), 77-87
[36]
Hesseling, B.P. (1994). Displacement: A review of the empirical literature, Clarke, R. (Ed.), Crime Prevention Studies, 3, 197-230, Monsey, New York: Criminal Justice Press
[37]
Hill, I. & Pease, K. (2001). The wicked issues: Displacement and sustainability in secure foundations: Key issues in crime prevention, Crime reduction and community safety, S. Ballantyne, Pease, K. & McLaren, V. (Eds.), London: IPPR
[38]
Klaus van Lampe (2011). Re-Conceptualizing transnational organized crime: Offenders as problem solvers, International Journal of Security and Terrorism, 2, 1- 23
[39]
Lab, S.P. (2000). Crime prevention: Approaches, practices and evaluations (4th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson, Publishing, Co
[40]
Mayhew, P (1988). The British Gas Suicide Story and Its Criminological Implications. In: M. Tonry and N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 10, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
[41]
McLennan, David & Adam, Whitworth (2008). Displacement of Crime or Diffusion of Benefit: Evidence from the New Deal for Communities Programme. Social Disadvantage Research Centre, University of Oxford, Communities and Local Government
[42]
Miethe, T. (1991). Citizen-Based Crime Control Activity and Victimization Risks: An Examination of Displacement and the Free-Rider Effect, Criminology, 29, 419-441
[43]
Moss, K. & Pease, K. (1999). Crime and Disorder Act 1998: Section 17, A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing, Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 1-19, Leicester: Perpetuity Press
[44]
Parker, R. & Nash (1995). Bringing Booze’ back in the relationship between alcohol and homicide, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 32, 3-38
[45]
Pascoe, Tim (1999). Evaluation of Secured by Design in Public Sector Housing, Building Research Establishment
[46]
Rengert, George F. (1989). Spatial justice and criminal victimization, Justice Quarterly, 6, 543-564
[47]
Rengert, George F. (1990). Drug purchasing as a routine activity of drug dependent property Criminal and the spatial concentration of crime, Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Conference, USA
[48]
Reppetto, Thomas A. (1974). Residential Crime, Cambridge, MA: Ballinger
[49]
Roman, C.G., Meagon C., Mark C., Erica L. & Shannon C. (2005). The weed and seed initiative and crime displacement in South Florida: An examination of spatial displacement associated with crime control initiatives and the redevelopment of public housing. Final Report, the Urban Institute
[50]
Sherman, Lawrence W. (1990). Police crackdowns: Initial and residual deterrence in Tonry, M. & Norval, M. (Eds.) Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 12, Chicago: University of Chicago Press
[51]
Sherman, Lawrence W., Patrick R. Gartin & Michael E. Buerger (1989). Hot Spots of Predatory Crime: Routine Activities and the Criminology of Place, Criminology 27(1), 27-56. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1989.tb00862.x
[52]
Teresa, L. (1999). The impact of neighborhoods, schools, and malls on the spatial distribution of property damage, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36, 393-422
[53]
Town, Stephen (2001). Crime Displacement, the Perception, Problems, Evidence and Supporting Theory, Bradford District Architectural Liaison Officer, Bradford
[54]
Weisburd, D., Laura W., Justin R., Eck, J. Joshua C. Hinkle & Frank G. (2006). Does crime just move around the corner? A controlled study of spatial displacement and diffusion of crime control benefits, Criminology, 44(3), 549-591
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186