The Impact of Women Cumulative Empowerment and Educational Gap on the Participation of Arabic Women in the Labor-Force
International Journal of Business and Economics Research
Volume 8, Issue 5, October 2019, Pages: 263-272
Received: Jun. 13, 2019;
Accepted: Jul. 17, 2019;
Published: Aug. 6, 2019
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Hanan Atta Shamlawi, The University of Jordan, Business College, Business Economics Department, Amman, Jordan
Woman is a key and an important contributor to development, therefore, enhancing her empowerment is a vital driver and a key element for a development process that is sustainable and continuous. Measuring the impact of both of cumulative woman empowerment, and educational empowerment (educational gap) on the participation of women in the labor force is crucial for pinpointing the fragility in woman empowerment efforts in the Arab region. This paper aims at investigating the impact of both women cumulative empowerment and educational gap on the participation of women in the labor force in the Arab countries. The study sample includes Arab countries that are included in the Global Gender Gap reports during the years (2006-2015). Using panel data, several econometrics models were estimated. Evidently, for the whole sample: both of women cumulative empowerment and the percentage of working women in the population have a significant positive impact on women’s participation in the labor force, meanwhile there was a negative impact of the population growth rate, and a both ways impact - positive and negative- of educational gender gap. After dividing Arab countries according to income groups, it is found that, for both high-income and lower middle income countries, there is a positive significant impact for women empowerment on women’s participation in the labor force. However, the results do not support any significant impact for women empowerment on women’s participation in the labor force in the upper middle income countries. It was also found that the proportion of working women out of the population was statistically significant for the three income levels. Also the results do not support any significant impact for both of the educational gap and population growth on women’s participation in the labor force.
Hanan Atta Shamlawi,
The Impact of Women Cumulative Empowerment and Educational Gap on the Participation of Arabic Women in the Labor-Force, International Journal of Business and Economics Research.
Vol. 8, No. 5,
2019, pp. 263-272.
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