Determinants of Health Care Demand in Ghana Using the Ordered Probit Model Analysis
International Journal of Business and Economics Research
Volume 3, Issue 6, December 2014, Pages: 259-265
Received: Dec. 1, 2014;
Accepted: Dec. 9, 2014;
Published: Jan. 12, 2015
Views 3113 Downloads 319
Bismark Osei, Department of Finance and Accounting, Zenith University College, Accra, Ghana
Mark Edem Kunawotor, Department of Finance and Accounting, Zenith University College, Accra, Ghana
Enock Anane, Department of Economics, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
The study examines the factors that determine health care demand of the people of Kwabre East District in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Health behaviour model formulated by Anderson and Newman was adopted for the analysis with the help of Ordered Probit. The result of the study revealed that, the level of income, transportation cost, hospital cost and NHIS have positive signs, implying that as these factors increases, the utilization of health care facilities also increases. It was found out from the marginal effects results that, NHIS and transport cost have negative signs on the patient’s first visit to hospital whiles the level of income and hospital cost were insignificant.
Mark Edem Kunawotor,
Determinants of Health Care Demand in Ghana Using the Ordered Probit Model Analysis, International Journal of Business and Economics Research.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2014, pp. 259-265.
Akin, J .S., Guilkey, D.K and Denton, E.H( 1981) “Quality of Services and Demand for Health Care in Nigeria”Social Science Medicine. 1981 Jun;40(11):1527-37.
Asenso,O. (1995): “Financing health care in Ghana”, World Health Forum, 1995; 16(1):86-91
Arcury, P. (2005): Public spending onhealth care in Africa: do the poor benefit?Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2005, 78(1).
Canagarajah, A and Xiao Ye (2001) ‘Public Health and Education Spending in Ghana in 1992-98.Quarterly Journal of Economics 106 (2), 407–443.
Ching, A and Stephen, F(1996): “Cost Recovery,Health Policy and Planning in Ghana”.Econometrica, 1996 , 44 : 249 - 256
Demery, L (1995): ‘Benefit incidence. A practitioner’s Guide,’ Poverty and Social Development Group, Africa Region, The World Bank.
Ghana Statistical Service (2007) ‘Pattern and Trends of Poverty in Ghana: 1991-2006’.
Glick, P and Razakamanantsoa, M (2005) ‘The Distribution of Education and Health Services in Madagascar over the 1990s: Increasing Progressivity in an Era of Low Growth; Journal of African Economies, Vol. 15, pp399-433.
Mattson, J (2010): “Public Expenditure in Malaysia: Who Benefits and Why?The World Bank, Oxford University Press, New York.
William,G(2002). "Convenient estimators for the panel probit model: Further results," Working Papers, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Economics.
Sahn, D., Stephen, Y and Garance, G (1993): The Demand for Health Care Services in Rural Tanzania, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 62 (2): 0305-9049
Paqueo, A (1977); Incidence of Social Spending in Ghana.’ PSP Discussion Papers Series No. 82, Poverty and Social Policy Department, The World Bank (November).
Rimando, L (1970) ‘Gender and Public Social Spending Disaggregating Benefit Incidence, Poverty and Social Policy Department; World Bank.
Sahn, D and Stephen, Y (2003)‘ Estimating the Incidence of Indirect Taxes in Developing Countries’ .The World Bank, Washington, DC.
Societal and Individual Determinants of Medical Care Utilization in the United States (Andersen &Newman 1973 and Wolinsky, 1988b))
Transport, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas (Jeremy Mattson, North Dakota state University, Fargo; December 2010).
The National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana: Prospects and challenges: a Cross-Sectional Evidence; Freeman F.K. Gobah and Zhang Liang; March 15, 2011).
Trivedy, S and Marcelo, J (2009): “Who Benefits from Government Expenditures? A Case Study of Colombia”, Oxford University Press, New York, 1979
Van, D. B., Valentina, M andNsowah, N(2004),“Health-care Provision and Self-medication in Ghana” Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research, ISSER, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; SOW-VU, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
World Health Organization, WHO Database, 19 September 2008 and GHS annual report 2011; Ghana.
World Bank (1995) ‘Ghana: Poverty Past, Present and Future. Report No. 14504-GH, Washington D.C.