International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy
Volume 4, Issue 1-1, January 2015, Pages: 13-19
Received: Nov. 20, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 24, 2014;
Published: Jan. 11, 2015
Views 4409 Downloads 254
Rameshprabu Ramaraj, School of Renewable Energy, Maejo University, Sansai, Chiang Mai-50290, Thailand
Natthawud Dussadee, School of Renewable Energy, Maejo University, Sansai, Chiang Mai-50290, Thailand
Niwooti Whangchai, Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Sansai, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand
Yuwalee Unpaprom, Program in Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Sansai, Chiang Mai-50290, Thailand
The running down of fossil energy sources makes the production of bioenergy an expected need worldwide. Therefore, energy crops have gained increasing attention in recent years as a source for the production of bioenergy because they do not compete with food crops. Microalgae have numerous advantages such as fast growth rates and not competing with food production. Because of the fast growth, many high valuable products are generated, e.g. food, biofuel, etc. Due to the energy crisis, renewable energy becomes a popular issue in this world today and there are several alternatives such as bioenergy, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, etc. For bioenergy, algae are the third generation biofuel crop. There is an increased demand for biogas in the society and one way to meet this is to use cultivated microalgae as fermentation substrate. In the present study, we maintained algae growth process and biomass production in autotrophic condition continuously for over 2 month’s period. Growth system (photobioreactor) was setup under room temperature and continuous illumination light through ﬂuorescent lamps; light intensity was average as 48.31 [µmol-1m-2 per µA]. In reactor, dominant microalgae species were including Anabaena sp., Chlorella sp., Oscillatoria sp., Oedogonium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. The content of total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) in the algae biomass was measured; the results were average as 12500 g/m3 and 6320 g/m3, respectively. Furthermore, microalgal biomass is a potentially valuable fermentation substrate, and produce over 60% of methane gas.
Microalgae Biomass as an Alternative Substrate in Biogas Production, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy. Special Issue: Renewable Energy Applications in the Agricultural Field and Natural Resource Technology.
Vol. 4, No. 1-1,
2015, pp. 13-19.
R. Ramaraj, D. D-W. Tsai, P. H. Chen, “An exploration of the relationships between microalgae biomass growth and related environmental variables”, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 2014, 135: 44–47.
R. Ramaraj, Freshwater microalgae growth and Carbon dioxide Sequestration, Taichung, Taiwan, National Chung Hsing University, PhD thesis, 2013.
R. Ramaraj, D. D-W. Tsai, P. H. Chen, “Freshwater microalgae niche of air carbon dioxide mitigation”, Ecological Engineering, 2014; 68: 47–52.
R. Ramaraj, D. D-W. Tsai, P. H. Chen, “Algae Growth in Natural Water Resources”, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2010, 42: 439–450.
R. Ramaraj, D. D-W. Tsai, P. H. Chen, “Chlorophyll is not accurate measurement for algal biomass”, Chiang Mai Journal of Science, 2013, 40: 547–555.
D. D-W. Tsai, Watershed Reactor Analysis, CO2 Eco-function and Threshold Management Study, Taichung, Taiwan, National Chung Hsing University, PhD thesis, 2012.
K. C. Park, C. Whitney, J. C. McNichol, K. E. Dickinson, S. MacQuarrie, B. P. Skrupski, J. Zou, K. E. Wilson, S. J. B. O’Leary, P. J. McGinn, “Mixotrophic and photoautotrophic cultivation of 14 microalgae isolates from Saskatchewan, Canada: potential applications for wastewater remediation for biofuel production”, Journal of Applied Phycology, 2012, 24: 339–348.
J.-C. Frigon, F. Matteau-Lebrun, R. Hamani Abdou, P. J. McGinn, S. J. B. O'Leary, S. R. Guiot, “Screening microalgae strains for their productivity in methane following anaerobic digestion”, Applied Energy, 2013, 108: 100–107.
B. Sialve, N. Bernet, O. Bernard, “Anaerobic digestion of microalgae as a necessary step to make microalgal biodiesel sustainable”, Biotechnology Advance, 2009, 27: 409–416.
R. Harun, M. Davidson, M. Doyle, R. Gopiraj, M. Danquah, G. Forde, “Technoeconomic analysis of an integrated microalgae photobioreactor, biodiesel and biogas production facility”, Biomass Bioenergy, 2011, 35: 741–747.
P. J. McGinn, K. E. Dickinson, K. C. Park, C. G. Whitney, S. P. MacQuarrie, F. J. Black, F. Jean-Claude, S. R. Guiot, S. J. B. O'Leary, “Assessment of the bioenergy and bioremediation potentials of the microalga Scenedesmus sp. AMDD cultivated in municipal wastewater effluent in batch and continuous mode”, Algal Research, 2012, 1: 155–65.
J. H. Mussgnug, V. Klassen, A. Schlüter, O. Kruse, “Microalgae as substrates for fermentative biogas production in a combined bioreﬁnery concept”, Journal of Biotechnology, 2010, 150: 51–56.
H. Ershad-Langroudi, M. Kamali, B. Falahatkar, “The independent effects of ferrous and phosphorus on growth and development of Tetraselmis suecica; an in vitro study”, Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2010, 8: 109–114.
S. Kant, P. Gupta, “Algal Flora of Ladakh”. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India, 1998.
APHA, AWWA, WPCF, “Standards Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 21st ed. APHA-AWWA-WPCF, Washington, DC, 2005.
M. von Sperling, S. C. Oliveira, “Comparative performance evaluation of full-scale anaerobic and aerobic wastewater treatment processes in Brazil”, Water Science Technology, 2009, 59: 15–22.
S. G. Pavlostathis, E. Giraldogomez, “Kinetics of anaerobic treatment: a critical review”, Water Science Technology, 1991, 24: 35–59.
D. Bilanovic, A. Andargatchew, T. Kroeger, G. Shelef, “Freshwater and marine microalgae sequestering of CO2 at different C and N concentrations – response surface methodology analysis”, Energy Conversion and Management, 2009, 50: 262–267.
A. Kumar, S. Ergas, X. Yuan, A. Sahu, Q. Zhang, J. Dewulf, F. X Malcata, H. van Langenhove, “Enhanced CO2 fixation and biofuel production via microalgae: recent developments and future directions”, Trends in Biotechnology, 2010, 28: 371–380.
A. Toledo-Cervantes, M. Morales, E. Novelo, S. Revah, “Carbon dioxide fixation and lipid storage by Scenedesmus obtusiusculus”, Bioresource Technology, 2013, 130: 652–658.
D. J. Farrelly, L. Brennan, C. D. Everard, K. P. McDonnell, “Carbon dioxide utilisation of Dunaliella tertiolecta for carbon bio-mitigation in a semicontinuous photobioreactor”, Applied Microbiology Biotechnology, 2014, 98: 3157–3164.
D. D-W. Tsai, R. Ramaraj, P. H. Chen, “Growth condition study of algae function in ecosystem for CO2 bio-ﬁxation”, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 2012, 107: 24–34.
F. Lananan, A. Jusoh, N. Ali, S. S. Lam, A. Endut, “Effect of Conway Medium and f/2 Medium on the growth of six genera of South China Sea marine microalgae”, Bioresource Technology, 2013, 141:75-82.
C. Tantanasarit, A. J. Englande, S. Babel, “Nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon uptake kinetics by marine diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans under high nutrient concentrations”, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2013, 446: 67–75.
R. W. Vocke, K. L. Sears, J. J. O'Toole, R. B. Wildman, “Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants”, Water Research, 1980, 14: 141–150.
I. Orhan, P. Wisespongpand, T. Atici, B. Şener, “Toxicity propensities of some marine and fresh-water algae as their chemical defense”, Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara, 2003, 32: 19–29.
P. H. Chen, W. J. Oswald, “Thermochemical treatment for algal fermentation”, Environment International, 1998, 24: 889–897.
I. Angelidaki, M. Alves, D. Bolzonella, L. Borzacconi, J. Campors, A. Guwy, S. Kalyuzhnyi, P. Jenicek, J. Van Lier, “Defining the biomethane potential (BMP) of solid organic wastes and energy crops: a proposed protocol for batch assays”, Water Science Technology, 2009, 59: 927–934.
M. E. Alzate, R. Muñoz, F. Rogalla, F. Fdz-Polanco, S. I. Pérez-Elvira, “Biochemical methane potential of microalgae biomass after lipid extraction”, Chemical Engineering Journal, 2014, 243: 405–410.
A. M. Buswell, C. S. Boruff, “The relationship between chemical composition of organic matter and the quality and quantity of gas produced during sludge digestion”, Sewage Works Journal, 1932, 4: 454–460.
I. Angelidaki, W. Sanders, “Assessment of the anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants”, Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 2004, 3: 117–129.
R. F. Harris, S. S. Adams, “Determination of the carbon-bound electron composition of microbial cells and metabolites by dichromate oxidation”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1979, 37: 237–243.
E. W. Becker, “Microalgae in human and animal nutrition”, A. Richmond (Ed.), Handbook of microalgal culture, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2004.
P. Weiland, “Biogas production: current state and perspectives”, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2010, 85: 849–860.