The Role of Climate–Forest–Agriculture Interface in Climate Resilient Green Economy of Ethiopia
Though the problem of climate change is global its effect on the developing countries like Ethiopia are very significant, because of less capacity to reduce and reverse the problem. Ethiopia has always suffered from great climatic variability; that causes for various socio-economic and environmental problems. This review paper examines why and how climate, forest, and agriculture interfaces matters to the climate resilient green economy of Ethiopia. Different researchers explain that, Ethiopia has lost accumulative level of over 13% of its agricultural output between 1991 and 2010. And if no adaptation measures are taken, climate change may reduce Ethiopia's GDP by up to 10% by 2045. Considering this the government of Ethiopia is working to build green economy development policies with a view to climate change, which is considered as necessity as well as an opportunity ,but there are controversies among the risk in a changing climate, demand for economic development, reduction of agricultural productivity, and natural resource. So, Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) approach needs to follows the principle of harmonizing these controversies. The highest bases of Ethiopian economy and source of energy are agriculture and forests respectively, plus to this both sectors are source of more than 80% Green House Gas (GHG) emission in the country. Therefore CRGE strategy which based mainly on agriculture and forest developmental policy is very important but the efforts so far have done on the two sectors are facing some challenges due to the strong interferences among Climate-Forest-Agriculture and related factors such as population growth, high dependency of national energy on fuel wood, lack of good governance, changing growing seasons, lack of real public policy discussion and policy contradiction like investment and settlement. Therefore taking in to account the role of climate, forest and agriculture interfaces in the effort to build Climate Resilient Green Economy and solving the related challenges is very important to achieve the CRGE strategy of Ethiopia.
Getahun Hassen Abbadiko,
The Role of Climate–Forest–Agriculture Interface in Climate Resilient Green Economy of Ethiopia, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy.
Vol. 5, No. 6,
2016, pp. 111-126.
Abellanosa, A. L. and ava. M.. (1987). Introduction to Crop Science. Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Bukidnon: Publications Office. p. 238.
Adugnaw, Birhanu (2014) Environmental degradation and management in Ethiopian highlands: International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy.
Africa Partnership Forum, (2007). Climate Change and Africa: 8th meeting of the Africa partnership forum. Berlin, Germany, Pp. 28.
Almut Arneth, (2015) How agriculture and forestry change climate, and how we deal with it, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Institute of Meteorology & Climate Research.
Alvaro Calzadilla & Katrin Rehdanz & Richard Betts & Pete Falloon & Andy Wiltshire & Richard S. J. Tol, (2013). Climate change impacts on global agriculture, Springer Science Business Media Dordrecht.
Arnett, C. et al. (2009). Country Programme Evaluation: Ethiopia. Evaluation Report (EV697).
Barry James, (2003) “Averting Conflict in the Nile Basin,” UNESCO the New Courier.
Bashir Abdullahi, (2009) Ethiopia’s Commitment to Climate Change Adaptation, A summarized paper prepared for the Earth Day Ethiopia.
Beverly A. M and Gallian B. A (2008) Climate change impact on forest health. Forest health and bio-security working papers FAO Rome Italy).
Breshears, D. D., Huxman, T. E., Adams, H. D., Zou, C. B. & Davison, J. E. (2008). Vegetation synchronously leans upslope as climate warms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(33): 11591-11592.
Burton, P. J., Bergeron, Y., Bogdansky, B. E. C., Juday, G. P., Kuuluvainen, T., McAfee, B. J., Ogden, A., Teplyakov, V. K., Alfaro, R. I., Francis, D. A., Gauthier, S. & Hantula, J. (2010). Sustainability of boreal forests and forestry in a changing environment. Forests and society – responding to global drivers of change. IUFRO World Series Vol. 25. Pp 249-282.
Emerta Asaminew Aragie (2013), Climate change, growth and poverty in Ethiopia
EPA (Environmental Protection Authority) (2011). Ethiopia’s Climate- Resilient Green Economy Strategy. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s Climate- Resilient Green Economy Strategy,/ECRGES (2011). Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Environmental Protection Authority).
European Environment Agency (2004). Impact of Europe’s changing climate. An indicator based assessment. EEA Report 2/2004. Copenhagen.
FAO (2006) World agriculture: towards 2030/2050: acting Report. Rome: FAO.
FAO (2010) Mobilizing the potential of rural and agricultural extension. Rome: FAO.
FAO (2014) (Food and Agriculture Organization). FAOSTAT: Emissions land use.
FAO, (2011) Adapt framework programme for climate change adaptation. Rome.
FAO, (1993): Forestry Statistics Today for Tomorrow: 1961-1991...2010. Report prepared by Statistics and Economic Analysis Staff of the Forestry Department, FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 46 pp
FAO, (2014) Agriculture, forestry and other land use emissions by sources and removals by sinks.
FAO. (2005). "Impact of climate change, pests and diseases on food security and poverty reduction." Special event back ground document for the 31st session of the committee on world food security. Rome. 23-26 May.
Feeley, K. J., Wright, S. J., NurSupardi, M. N., Kassim, A. R. & Davies, S. J. (2007). Decelerating growth in tropical forest trees. Ecology Letters 10: 461-469.
Fischlin, A., Ayres, M., Karnosky, D., Kellomäki, S., Louman, B., Ong, C., Plattner, C., Santoso, H., Thompson, I, Booth, T., Marcar, N., Scholes, B., Swanston, C. & Zamolodchikov, D. (2009). Future environmental impacts and vulnerabilities.
Forner, C, and Robledo, C, (2005) Adaptation of forest ecosystems and the forest sector to climate change. FAO Series Forests and Climate Change Working Paper, 2. FAO. Rome. Table based on Meer, P., Kramek, K. & Wjik, M. 2001. Climate change and forest ecosystem dynamics. Amsterdam, RVIM Report, No. 410200069. 130 pp.
Fuhrer. J •. Beniston. M, Fischlin. A.Ch. Frei• S. Goyette• K. Jasper • Ch. Pfister, (2006) Climate risks and their impact on agriculture and forests in Switzerland.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Summary for Policymakers. In Parry, M. L., Canziani, O. F., Palutikof, J. P., van der Linden, P. J. & Hanson, C. E., eds. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, pp. 7-22. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPC, (2014). Climate Resilient Pathways: Adaptation, Mitigation, and Sustainable Development.
IPCC (2007). Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Parry M, Canziani O, Palutikof J, van der Linden J, and Hanson C (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 976 p.
ISU/ International Sustainability Unit (2015) Tropical Forests A Review.
IUFRO. (2009). Adaptation of forests and people to climate change, A Global Assessment Report, Seppala, R., Buck, A., and Katila, P. (eds.) International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) World Series Volume 22. Helsinki. 224pp.
Jerry.. L. H and John, H. P (,2015) Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development, Journal of ELSEVIER vol 10 part A 2015 P 4-10.
Jonathan M. Harris and Maliheh Birj and Feriz, (2011) Forests, Agriculture, and Climate: Economics and Policy issues global development and environment institute tufts university.
Lakew Desta, Carucci, V., Asrat Wendem-Ageňehu and Yitayew Abebe (eds). (2005). Community Based Participatory Watershed Development: A Guideline Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Lewis Thomas, (2010) The importance of land base interactions among forests, agriculture, and climate mitigation policies, science findings, issue one hundred twenty seven.
Lucier, A., Ayres, M., Karnosky, D., Thompson, I., Loehle, C., Percy, K. & Sohngen, B. (2009). Forest responses and vulnerabilities to recent climate change. In: Seppala, R., Buck, A. & Katila, P. 2009. Adaptation of forests and people to climate change.
McKee, J. (2007) “Ethiopia, country environmental profile.” report prepared for the European commission.
Mekonnen, A., köhlin. G, (2008) “biomass fuel consumption and dung use as manure: evidence from rural households in the Amhara region of Ethiopia.” environment for development discussion paper seriesefddp. : 8-17.
Melillo, J. M., T. V. Callaghan, F. I. Woodward, E. Salati, and S. K. Sinha, (1990) Effects on ecosystems. In: Climate Change—the IPCC Scientific Assessment. Report Prepared for IPCC by Working Group I [Houghton, J. T., G. J. Jenkins, and J. J. Ephraums (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge a.o., pp. 283-310.
Mitchell RAC, Mitchell V, Driscioll SP, Franklin J, Lawlor DW, (1993); Effects of increased CO2 concentration and temperature on growth and yield of winter wheat at two levels of nitrogen application. Plant, Cell and Environment 16:521-529.
MoARD & WB (2007). Ethiopia: Thematic papers on land degradation in Ethiopia. Ministry of agriculture and rural development and World Bank, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Mortsch, L. D. (2006). Impact of climate change on agriculture, forestry and wetlands. In Bhatti, J., Lal, R., Apps, M. & Price, M., eds. Climate change and managed ecosystems, pp. 45-67. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, US.
Mulugeta, L., Zenebe, M. (2011). Combretum Terminalia broad- leaved deciduous forests. In: Forest types inEthiopia: Status, Potential contribution, Challenges and Recommendation. PP 53-78 (EnsermuKelbessa and AbinetGirmaeds.) Forum for Environment, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Nowak, RS, Ellsworth, DS & Smith, SD (2004), ‘Functional responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2: do photosynthetic and productivity data from FACE experiments support early predictions?’, New Phytologist, vol. 162, pp. 253-280.
Olesen, J. E., Schelde, K., Weiske, A. Weisbjerg, M. R., Asman W. A. H. & Djurhuus, J. (2006). Modelling greenhouse gas emissions from European conventional and organic dairy farms. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment 112 (2-3): 207-220.
onan, G. B. (2008). Forest and Climate Change: Forcing, Feedbacks, and the Climate Benefits of Forests. Planet Earth science for society foundation, Leiden the Netherland. Accessed from http://www.course-notes.com.
OXFAM International (2010), Poverty, vulnerability and climate variability in Ethiopia, the rain does not come on time anymore.
Parmesan, C. & Yohe, G. (2003). A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature, 421: 37-42.
Reinder Brolsma (2010) Effect of climate change on temperate forest ecosystem, Netherlands geographical studies 396.
Rimando, T. J.. (2004) Crop Science 1: Fundamentals of Crop Science. U.P. Los Baños: University Publications Office. p.1).
Ritchie, J. C. and G. M. MacDonald, (1986) The patterns of post-glacial spread of white spruce. Journal of Biogeography, 13, 527-540.
Robledo, C. and Forner, C. (2005). Adaptation of forest ecosystems and the forest sector to climate change. FAO Series Forests and Climate Change Working Paper, 2. FAO. Rome. Table based on Meer, P., Kramek, K. &Wjik, M. 2001. Climate change and forest ecosystem dynamics. Amsterdam, RVIM Report, No. 410200069. 130 pp.
Shankar. Prasad .G (2010) Climate change and its impact on forest resource base at global and local level HNRSC, Kathmandu University.
Smith P., M. Bustamante, H. Ahammad, H. Clark, H. Dong, E. A. Elsiddig, H. Robledo Abad, A. Romanovskaya, F. Sperling, & F. Tubiello, (2014) Agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU).
Stern, N. (2007). Stern Review Report: The Economics of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (in press).
Temesgen Gashaw and Wondie Mebrat, Daniel Hagos and Abeba Nigussie, (2014) Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Measures in Ethiopia, Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare.
The World Bank/WB (2012) Carbon Sequestration In Agricultural Soils, Economic And Sector WorkReport No. 67395-GLB.
Tierney Smith, (2012) The role of forests in combating climate change.
UN Global Compact, UN Environment Programme, and the World Resources Institute, (2011) Adapting for a Green Economy.
UNDP Ethiopia, (2011) Framework for UNDP Ethiopia's Climate Change, Environment and Disaster Risk Management Portfolio.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, (2007) Report of the Conference of the Parties on its thirteenth session, held in Bali from 3 to 15 December.
United Nations., (2015) Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the Post-2015 Development Agenda meeting, 25-27 September 2015, New York. United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. No. 17. New York.
Villabolo., (2011) More carbon dioxide is not necessary good for plants.
WBISPP, Woody Biomass Inventory and Strategic Planning Project. (2005). A National Strategic Plan for the Biomass Energy Sector. Addis Ababa.
WRI, (2014). Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) WRI’s climate data explorer.