Comparison of District Heating Systems Used in China and Denmark
International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 102-116
Received: Dec. 23, 2014; Accepted: Dec. 27, 2014; Published: May 11, 2015
Views 6876      Downloads 221
Authors
Lipeng Zhang, Civil Engineering Department, Technical University of Denmark, Anker Engelunds Vej Building 118, Kgs.Lyngby, Denmark; Danfoss A/S, District Energy Division, Application Center, Nordborgvej 81, Nordbrg, Denmark
Oddgeir Gudmundsson, Danfoss A/S, District Energy Division, Application Center, Nordborgvej 81, Nordbrg, Denmark
Hongwei Li, Civil Engineering Department, Technical University of Denmark, Anker Engelunds Vej Building 118, Kgs.Lyngby, Denmark
Svend Svendsen, Civil Engineering Department, Technical University of Denmark, Anker Engelunds Vej Building 118, Kgs.Lyngby, Denmark
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
China has one of the largest district heating (DH) markets in the world with total district heat sales in 2011 amounting to 2,810,220 TJ. Nevertheless, it still has great potential for further expanding its DH supply, due to rapid urbanization and the demand to improve the quality of life. However, the current DH system in China is in great need of system improvements, technology renovation, and optimization of operations and management. As one of the world’s leading countries in terms of DH supply, Denmark has state-of-the-art DH technologies and rich experience in the design and operation of DH systems. Experiences learned from the Danish DH system are useful for improving the current Chinese DH system. This article provides an overview of the technological differences between the two countries, focusing on: a) heat generation, b) the DH distribution network, c) DH network control, and d) the end consumer. The paper looks at the obvious differences between these two countries in terms of DH supply and concludes that there is significant, achievable potential for improvement regarding both energy efficiency and user comfort in the Chinese DH system, through technological advancement and implementing the operational know-how of more modern DH systems.
Keywords
District Heating, Energy Efficiency, Technical Measure, China, Denmark
To cite this article
Lipeng Zhang, Oddgeir Gudmundsson, Hongwei Li, Svend Svendsen, Comparison of District Heating Systems Used in China and Denmark, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2015, pp. 102-116. doi: 10.11648/j.ijrse.20150403.15
References
[1]
4DH, Welcome to 4DH. URL http://4dh.dk/
[2]
Ajah, A.N., Patil, A.C., Herder, P.M., Grievink, J., 2007. Integrated conceptual design of a robust and reliable waste-heat district heating system. Appl. Therm. Eng. 27, 1158–1164.
[3]
Alberg, P., Vad, B., Möller, B., Lund, H., 2010. A renewable energy scenario for Aalborg Municipality based on low-temperature geothermal heat , wind power and biomass. Energy 35, 4892–4901.
[4]
Andersen, R.K., Mortensen, J., Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster. Denmark : We Know Waste-Asset mapping of the Danish waste resource management sector. URL https://stateofgreen.com/files/download/446 (access 3.6.2014)
[5]
Baeumler, A., Ijjasz-vasquez, E., Mehndiratta, S., 2012. Sustainable Low-Carbon City Development in China. World Bank.
[6]
Beijing Heating group, 2011. District Heating Development and Construction Planning of Beijing during 12th Five-Year period.
[7]
Beijing shuts coal-fired boilers for clearn air, 2013. URL http://beijing.china.org.cn/2013-05/27/content_28941727.htm (accessed 10.24.13).
[8]
Bertelsen, F., Tafdrup, S., n.d. Biomass in the Danish Energy sector. URL http://www.ens.dk/node/2027 (accessed 1.8.14).
[9]
Boysen, H., Thorsen, J.E., 2007. Hydraulic balance in a district heating system. Euroheat Power (English Ed). 4, 36 – 41.
[10]
Brand, M., Svendsen, S., 2013. Renewable-based low-temperature district heating for existing buildings in various stages of refurbishment. Energy 62, 311–319.
[11]
China National Bureau of Statistics, National Bureau of statistics data. URL http://www.stats.gov.cn/ (access 10.10.2013)
[12]
Christensen, J.E.S.B., 2008. Why CHP and district heating are important for China. Cogener. On-Site Power Prod. 23–27.
[13]
Dalla Rosa, A., Li, H., Svendsen, S., 2011. Method for optimal design of pipes for low-energy district heating, with focus on heat losses. Energy 36, 2407–2418.
[14]
Dalla Rosa, A., Li, H., Svendsen, S., 2013. Modeling transient heat transfer in small-size twin pipes for end-user connections to low- energy district heating networks. Heat Transf. Eng. 34, 372–384.
[15]
Danfoss A/S, 2004. Real case in Weihai City Shandong Province of China.
[16]
Danish Energy Agency, 2012. Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures in Denmark.
[17]
Danish Energy Agency, n.d. Energy Policy in Denmark. URL http://www.ens.dk/sites/ens.dk/files/dokumenter/publikationer/downloads/energy_policy_in_denmark_-_web.pdf (accessed 5.28.13).
[18]
Dansk Fjernvarme, n.d. Danish district heating association. URL http://www.fjernvarmen.dk/ (accessed 9.15.13).
[19]
DBDH, n.d. District heating history. URL http://dbdh.dk/district-heating-history/ (accessed 5.16.13).
[20]
Drysdale, A., 2002. Innovative technique for field calibration and inspection of large district heating meters. Euroheat Power/Fernwarme Int. 31, 62 – 65.
[21]
Dyrelund, A., 2012. Danish cases to implement the legislation: The future of the energy supply: Smart energy cities. Euroheat Power (English Ed). 9, 12 – 15.
[22]
Eldrup, A., 2013. DONG Energy and the Municipality of Fredericia turn waste into valuable resource. URL http://www.dongenergy.com/ (accessed 8.1.13).
[23]
EURO HEAT & POWER, n.d. District Heating & Cooling. URL http://www.euroheat.org/Denmark-74.aspx (accessed 1.9.14).
[24]
Extranet, P., n.d. Large Scale Solar Heating Plants -Marstal. URL http://www.solar-district-heating.eu/ServicesTools/Plantdatabase.aspx?udt_1317_param_detail=326 (accessed 6.16.13).
[25]
Fang, H., Xia, J., Zhu, K., Su, Y., Jiang, Y., 2013. Industrial waste heat utilization for low temperature district heating. Energy Policy 62, 236–246.
[26]
Finn Bruus, Halldor Kristjansson, 2004. Principal design of heat distribution. News DBDH July, 14–17.
[27]
Gao, Y., Xu, J., Yang, S., Tang, X., Zhou, Q., Ge, J., Xu, T., Levinson, R., 2014. Cool roofs in China: Policy review, building simulations, and proof-of-concept experiments. Energy Policy.
[28]
Gebremedhin, A., 2012. Introducing District Heating in a Norwegian town – Potential for reduced Local and Global Emissions. Appl. Energy 95, 300–304.
[29]
Gerlach, T., 1991. District heating in Denmark’s environmental and energy policy. Fernwaerme Int. 20.
[30]
Global Talent, 2013. climate_weather in Denmark. URL http://consortiumforglobaltalent.dk (access 6.10.2013)
[31]
IEA, 2007. CHP and DHC in China : An Assessment of Market and Policy Potential Energy and Climate Change Overview. URL http://www.iea.org/media/files/chp/profiles/China.pdf (accessed 4.12.13).
[32]
Jørgensen, H., Current status on biorefineries in Denmark. Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning. University of Copenhagen. URL http://www.iea-bioenergy.task42-biorefineries.com/en/ieabiorefinery.htm (access 3.10.2013)
[33]
Li, H., Svendsen, S., 2012. Energy and exergy analysis of low temperature district heating network. Energy 45, 237–246.
[34]
Li, J., Colombier, M., Giraud, P.-N., 2009. Decision on optimal building energy efficiency standard in China—The case for Tianjin. Energy Policy 37, 2546–2559.
[35]
Li, Y., Fu, L., Zhang, S., Jiang, Y., Xiling, Z., 2011. A new type of district heating method with co-generation based on absorption heat exchange ( co-ah cycle ). Energy Convers. Manag. 52, 1200–1207.
[36]
Liu, L., Fu, L., Jiang, Y., Guo, S., 2011. Major issues and solutions in the heat-metering reform in China. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15, 673–680.
[37]
Lo, K., Wang, M.Y., 2013. Energy conservation in China’s Twelfth Five-Year Plan period: Continuation or paradigm shift? Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 18, 499–507.
[38]
Lund, H., Möller, B., Mathiesen, B.V., Dyrelund, A., 2010. The role of district heating in future renewable energy systems. Energy 35, 1381–1390.
[39]
Lund, H., Werner, S., Wiltshire, R., Svendsen, S., Thorsen, J.E., Hvelplund, F., Mathiesen, B.V., 2014. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH). Energy 68, 1–11.
[40]
Lund, H.Ã., Mathiesen, B. V, 2009. Energy system analysis of 100 % renewable energy systems — The case of Denmark in years 2030 and 2050 34, 524–531.
[41]
Mahler, A., Røgen, B., Ditlefsen, C., Nielsen, L.H., Pedersen, T.V., 2013. Geothermal Energy Use , Country Update for Denmark, in: Europesn Geothermal Congress 2013. Pisa,Italy.
[42]
Mathiesen, B.V., Lund, H., Connolly, D., 2012. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems. Energy 48, 160–168.
[43]
Ministry of Construction of China & General Administration of Quality Supervision Inspection and Quarantine of the P. R. China, 2012. China national standard GB 50019-2012 : Design code of heating ventilation and air conditioning. China Architecture Industry Press, Beijing.
[44]
the Ministry of Construction of China & State Bureau of Technical Supervision, 1993. China National Standard GB50176-93:Thermal design code for civil building. China Architecture Industry Press, Beijing.
[45]
Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China, 2010. JGJ26-2010:Design standard for energy efficiency of residential buildings in severe cold and cold zones. China Architecture Industry Press, Beijing.
[46]
Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China, 2012. Government work report regarding 2012 heat metering reform special supervision and inspection in North China heating regions.
[47]
Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China, 2013. JGJ/T 129-2012: Technical specification for energy efficiency retrofitting of existing residential buildings. China Architecture Industry Press, Beijing.
[48]
Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development P.R.China, 2009. People’s Republic of China Industry Standard JGJ 173-2009: Technical specification for heat metering of district heating system. China Architecture industry Press, Beijing.
[49]
Mortensen, H., 1992. CHP DEVELOPMENT IN DENMARK - ROLE AND RESULTS. Energy Policy 20, 1198 – 1206.
[50]
Münster, M., Morthorst, P.E., Larsen, H. V., Bregnbæk, L., Werling, J., Lindboe, H.H., Ravn, H., 2012. The role of district heating in the future Danish energy system. Energy 48, 47–55.
[51]
Odgaard, O., n.d. Large and small scale district heating plants. URL http://www.ens.dk/en/supply/heat-supply-denmark/large-small-scale-district-heating-plants (accessed 12.2.13).
[52]
Orchard, W., 2009. “ Carbon footprints of various sources of heat – biomass combustion and CHPDH comes out lowest ”. URL http://www.claverton-energy.com/carbon-footprints-of-various-sources-of-heat-chpdh-comes-out-lowest.html (accessed 6.15.13).
[53]
Ottosen, P., Gullev, L., 2004. Avedøre unit 2 - the world ’ s largest biomass-fuelled CHP plant. DBDH 1.
[54]
Persson, U., 2010. Effective width - The relative demand for district heating pipe lengths in city areas. 12th Int. Symp. Dist. Heat. Cool. 128 – 131.
[55]
Price, L., Levine, M.D., Zhou, N., Fridley, D., Aden, N., Lu, H., McNeil, M., Zheng, N., Qin, Y., Yowargana, P., 2011. Assessment of China’s energy-saving and emission-reduction accomplishments and opportunities during the 11th Five Year Plan. Energy Policy 39, 2165–2178.
[56]
Richerzhagen, C., Hansen, N., Netzer, N., 2008. Energy Efficiency in Buildings in China Policies , Barriers and Opportunities. German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE), Bonn.
[57]
Runager, J.M., Nielsen, J.E., 2009. LARGE SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM-DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECTIVES. ENERGY Environ. 8–11.
[58]
SDH, n.d. Ranking List of European Large Scale Solar Heating Plants. URL http://www.solar-district-heating.eu/ServicesTools/Plantdatabase.aspx (accessed 6.16.13).
[59]
Thomson, E., 2014. Introduction to special issue: Energy issues in China׳s 12th Five Year Plan and beyond. Energy Policy 73, 1–3.
[60]
Thorsen, J.E., 2010. Analysis on flat station concept. Preparing dhw decentralised in flats. 12th Int. Symp. Dist. Heat. Cool. 16 – 21.
[61]
Thorsen, J.E., Gudmundsson, O., 2012. Danfoss district heating application handbook. Danfoss A/S, Nordborg.
[62]
Tsinghua University building energy research center, 2011 Annual Report on China Building Energy Efficiency.
[63]
U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, Combined Heat and Power Partnership, Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, 2008. Facilitating Deployment of Highly Efficient Combined Heat and Power Applications in China:Analysis and Recommendations. URL http://www.epa.gov/chp/documents/chpapps_china.pdf (accessed 6.20.13).
[64]
Vestforbrænding, 2013. Why incineration. URL http://www.vestfor.com/why-incineration (accessed 6.12.13).
[65]
WADE, 2010. The Potential for Clean DE and CHP in China – Executive Summary. URL http://www.localpower.org/ (access: 5.10.2013)
[66]
Werner, S., Frederiksen, S., 2013. District Heating and Cooling. Studentlitteratur AB, Lund.
[67]
Wikipedia, 2014. Avedøre Power Station. URL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aved%C3%B8re_Power_Station (accessed 2.10.14).
[68]
Xu, zhongtang, 2010. 60 years development of urban heating. Dist. Heat. China 1–10.
[69]
Xu, B., Fu, L., Di, H., 2009. Field investigation on consumer behavior and hydraulic performance of a district heating system in Tianjin, China. Build. Environ. 44, 249–259.
[70]
Xu, Z., 2000. The development of Chinese urban central heating. City Dev. Res. China 51–55.
[71]
Yan, D., Zhe, T., Yong, W., Neng, Z., 2011. Achievements and suggestions of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in northern heating regions of China. Energy Policy 39, 4675–4682.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186