Variations in Oil Content and Biodiesel Yield of Jatropha Curcas from Different Agro-Ecological Zones of Ghana
International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2014, Pages: 76-81
Received: Aug. 4, 2014;
Accepted: Aug. 13, 2014;
Published: Aug. 20, 2014
Views 3126 Downloads 239
Derkyi, Nana Sarfo Agyemang, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani, Ghana
Sekyere, Daniel, Forest Industry Development Division, CSIR-Forestry Research Institute of Ghana
Oduro, Kwame Antwi, Forest Livelihoods and Governance Division, CSIR-Forestry Research Institute of Ghana
Jatropha curcas is a perennial, deciduous, shrub, which produces seeds rich in oil that is easily convertible into biodiesel. The major constraint in achieving higher biodiesel yield of J. curcas is insufficient information about its climatic variability. The objective of the current work therefore was to evaluate the oil content and biodiesel yield of J.curcas from different climatic conditions in Ghana. Jatropha seeds were collected from six different agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Oil from each sample was obtained by employing soxhlet extraction using n-hexane. Base-catalyzed transesterification reaction was used to transform the oil into biodiesel. The free fatty acid content and moisture content of the jatropha oil and its biodiesel were determined according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemist method. The seed moisture content ranged from 6.00 to 8.40%, free fatty acid ranged from 2.79 to 4.96% and the oil content ranged from 44.20 to 49.70%. The biodiesel yield ranged from 82 to 90%. The least value was recorded in the Evergreen forest zone whilst the highest value was recorded in the Transition Savanah zone. Climatic condition based on rainfall, seed moisture content and free fatty acid characters studied presented highly negative correlation with biodiesel yield. It can therefore be concluded that in selecting seeds for either biodiesel production or for plantation establishment, selection should be geared towards minimal values for these parameters studied which automatically raise the biodiesel yield in J. curcas seeds. The results of this study could provide the development of active bioenergy enterprise that aim at biodiesel production from J. curcas plant in Ghana.
Derkyi, Nana Sarfo Agyemang,
Oduro, Kwame Antwi,
Variations in Oil Content and Biodiesel Yield of Jatropha Curcas from Different Agro-Ecological Zones of Ghana, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2014, pp. 76-81.
International Energy Agency (IEA). World energy outlook 2007. Available from: http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2007/weo 2007.pdf; 2007 [cited 15.01.14].
Shahid EM, Jamal J. (2011). Production of biodiesel: a technical review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15(9):4732–45.
Ahmad AL, Mat Yasin NH, Derek CJC, Lim JK. (2011). Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 15(1):584–93.
International Energy Agency (IEA). CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. Available from: http://www.iea.org/co2highlights/co2highlights.pdf; 2010 [cited 15.01.14].
Aransiola E, Betiku E, Layokun S, Solomon B. (2010). Production of biodiesel by transesterification of refined soybean oil. IJBCS. 4(2):391-9.
Kiss AA. (2009). Novel process for biodiesel by reactive absorption. Sep Purif Technol. 69(3):280-7.
Demirbas A. (2005) Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods. Prog Energy Combust Sci 31:466–87.
Patil PD, Deng S. (2009). Optimization of biodiesel production from edible and non-edible vegetable oils. Fuel 88(7):1302-6.
Balat M. (2011). Potential alternatives to edible oils for biodiesel production e a review of current work. Energy Convers Manag. 52(2):1479-92.
Foidl N, Foidl G, Sanchez M, Mittelbach M, Hackel S. (1996). Jatropha curcas L. as a source for the production of biofuel in Nicaragua. Bioresour Technol 58:77–82.
Azam MM, Waris A, Nahar NM. (2005). Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India. Biomass Bioenergy. 29:293–302.
Achten WMJ, Verchot L, Franken YJ (2008).Jatropha bio-diesel production and use. Biomass Bioenerg. 32(12): 1063–1084.
Fairless D. (2007). Biofuel: the little shrub that could – maybe. Nature 449(7163), 652–655.
Francis G, Edinger R, Becker K. (2005). A concept for simultaneous wasteland reclamation, fuel production, and socio–economic development in degraded areas in India: need, potential and perspectives of Jatropha plantations. Nat. Resour. Forum 29(1): 12–24.
U.S. Energy Information Administration. International energy outlook 2010. Available from: http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/0484%282010%29.pdf; 2010 [cited 15.01.14].
Mohibbe AM., Waris A., Nahar NM. (2005). Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use of biodiesel in India, Biomass Bioenergy 29: 293-302.
Achten W.M.J., Verchot L., Franken Y. J., Mathijis E., Singh V. P., Aerts R., and Muys B. (2008). Jatropha biodiesel production and use. Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 32, pp. 1063-1084.
Forson F. K., Oduro E. K., and Hammond-Donkoh E. (2004). Performance of Jatropha oil blends in a diesel engine. Renewable Energy, vol. 29, pp. 1135-1145.
Pramanik K. (2003). Properties and use of Jatropha curcas oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine, Renewable Energy 28: 239-248.
Osawa C.C., Gonçalves L.A.G. and Ragazzi S. (2007). Correlation between free fatty acids of vegetable oils evaluated by rapid tests and by the official method. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 20: 523-528.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed. Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, AOAC International.
Demirbas A. (2005). Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods. ProgrEnerg Combust Sci; 31:466–87.
Demirbas A. (2009). Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels. Energy Convers Manage; 50:14–34.
Mathiyazhagan, M. and Ganapathi, A. (2011). Factors affecting biodiesel production. Research in Plant Biology, 1(2): 01-05
Foidl N., Foidl G., Sanchez M., Mittelbach M. and Hackel S. (1996). Jatropha curcas L. as a source for the production of biofuel in Nicaragua. Bioresource Technology. 58: 77-82.
Tiwari A. K., Kumar A. and Raheman H. (2007). Biodiesel production from jatropha oil (Jatropha curcas) with high free fatty acids: An optimized process. Biomass and Bioenergy. 31: 569-575.
Azhari M. Faiz R. Yunus T.I Mohd. Ghazi and T.C.S Yaw. (2008). Reduction of free fatty acids in crude Jatropha curcas oil via an esterification process. International Journal of Engineering and Technology. 5(2): 92-98.
Goodrum J.W. (2002). Volatility and boiling points of biodiesel from vegetable oils and tallow. Biomass Bioenergy. 22: 205–211.
Kumar, S. and Singh, S. (2014). Variability assessment of seed traits in Jatropha curcas L. for improvement of oil yield. International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology. Vol. 6(1) 8-14, DOI: 105897/IJGMB2013.0079.
O’Neill CM, Gill S, Hobbs D, Morgan C, Bancroft I (2003). Natural variation for seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochem. 64:1077-1090.
Geus De, Jan G (1973). Fertilizer Guide for the Tropics and Sub tropics. Centre d’ Etude de I’ Azote, Bleicherweg 33, Zurich.
Jones N, Miller JH (1991). Jatropha curcas- a multipurpose species for problematic sites. Land Resour. Series 1:1-12.
Vollmann J, Moritz T, Kargl C, Baumgartner S, Wagentrist H (2007). Agronomic evaluation of camelina genotypes selected for seed quality characteristics. Ind. Crops. Prod. 26:270-277.
Ginwal, H. S., S. S. Phartyal, P. S. Rawat and R. L. Srivastava (2005). Seed source variation in morphology, germination and seedling growth of J. curcas Linn. in Central India. Silvae Genetica 54:76-80.
Kaushik, N., K. Kumar, S. Kumar and S. Roy, (2007). Genetic variability and divergence studies in seed traits and oil content of J. curcas (J. curcas L.) accessions. Biomass and Bioenergy 31:497-502.
Kumar, S., Shukla, S. D., Gautam, P. K., Kato, S. and Kojima, T. (2011). Effect of Climate and Soil Condition on Oil Content of Jatropha Plants Grown in Arid Areas of India. Journal of Arid Land Studies, 21-2, 51 - 55
Basha SD and Sujatha M. (2007). Inter and intra-population variability of Jatropha curcas (L.) characterized by RAPD and ISSR markers and development of population specific SCAR markers. Euphytica, 156:375–86.
Sunil N, Varaprasad KS, Sivaraj N, Kumar TS, Abraham B and Prasad RBN. (2008). Assessing Jatropha curcas L. germplasms in-situ – A case study. Biomass and Bioenergy. 32:198–202.
Statistics, Research and Information Directorate (SRID). 2001. Agriculture in Ghana. Facts and figures. Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Accra. Ghana.
Akbar E, Yaakob Z, Kamarudin SK, Ismail M, Salimon J. (2009). Characteristic and Composition of Jatropha curcas Oil seed from Malaysia and its potential as biodiesel feedstock, European Journal of Scientific Research 29(3): 396-403.
Berchmans H.J. and Hirata S. (2008). Biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas L. Seed oil with high content of free fatty acids. Bioresource. Technology. 79: 1716-1721.
Ghasemnezhad A. and Honermeier B. (2009). Influence of storage conditions on quality and viability of high and low oleic sunflower seeds. International Journal of Plant Production. 3(4): 39-48.
Kartika I. A. (2010). Moisture sorption behavior of jatropha seeds at 20°C as a source of vegetable oil for biodiesel production. J. Tek. Ind. Pert. 19(3): 123-129.