Modeling and Characterization of Reed Canary Grass Pellet Formation Phenomenon
International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy
Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2013, Pages: 63-73
Received: Jan. 29, 2013; Published: Mar. 10, 2013
Views 3262      Downloads 170
Amarnath Dhamodaran, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada E3B5A3
Muhammad Afzal, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada E3B5A3
Article Tools
Follow on us
The behaviour of pelletized reed canary grass (RCG) with selected feedstock and process parameters was studied for variation in springback characteristics based on axial changes after the compaction process. Experiments were carried out using a uniaxial single piston cylinder assembly with a proportional integral derivative temperature controller which was built in house for research purposes. A Multiple linear regression analysis based on moisture, temperature, pressure, hold time and their interaction terms was carried out to predict the length of pellets under compression in the die and excellent correlation were obtained. A finite difference method with over relaxation technique was successfully adopted to analyse the pressure and density distributions of biomass under compressive load. The compact geometry and friction between particles and die wall had effects on the pressure and density distributions in the compacted biomass. RCG pellets with lowest expansion were subjected to axial and diametrical compression tests. Bonding and failure analysis were carried out using scanning electron microscope which showed uneven breakage and interparticle voids.
Reed Canary Grass Pellets, Densification, Finite Difference Method, Pressure Distribution, Density Distribution, MLR Modeling
To cite this article
Amarnath Dhamodaran, Muhammad Afzal, Modeling and Characterization of Reed Canary Grass Pellet Formation Phenomenon, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2013, pp. 63-73. doi: 10.11648/j.ijrse.20130202.16
McKendry, P. (2002). Energy production from biomass (part 1): overview of biomass. Bioresource Technology 83(1), 37-46.
Larsson, S. H., Thyrel, M., Geladi, P., and Lestander, T. A. (2008). "High quality biofuel pellet production from pre-compacted low density raw materials," Bioresource Technology 99(15), 7176-7182.
Lewandowski I; Kicherer A. (1997). Combustion quality of biomass: practical relevance and experiments to modify the biomass quality of Miscanthus × giganteus. European Journal of Agronomy;6:163–77.
Marten GC; Jordan RM & Hovin AW. Biological significance of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) alkaloids and associated palatability variation to grazing sheep and cattle. Agronomy Journal 1976;68:909–14.
Østrem L., (1987). Studies on genetic variation in reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea L. I. Alkaloid type and concen-tration. Hereditas;107:235–48.
Hadders G, Olsson R. (1997). Harvest of grass for combustion in late summer and spring. Biomass and Bioenergy 12(3): 171–5.
Lewandowski, I; Scurlock, J.M.O; Lindvall, E. & Christou, M.U. (2003). The development and current status of perennial rhizomatous grasses as energy crops in the US and Europe. Biomass and Bioenergy 25(4), 335-361.
Burvall J; Hedman B (1994). Fuel characteristics of Reed canary grass—results from third and second years, Swedish Institute of Agricultural Engineering.
Rumpf H (1962). The strength of granules and agglomerates. In: Agglomeration (Knepper W A ed), pp. 379–419. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Amarnath Dhamodaran., Muhammad T.Afzal (2012). Com-pression and springback properties of hardwood and softwood pellets. Bioresources 7(3) 4362-4376.
Kaliyan N; Morey R V (2006). Densification Characteristics of Corn Stover and Switchgrass. ASABE Paper No.066174. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), St. Joseph, MI.
Kaliyan N; Morey R V (2009). Constitutive model for den-sification of corn stover and switchgrass. Bio systems engi-neering (2009), 47 – 63.
Kremmer, M. and J. F. Favier. (2001). A method for representing boundaries in discrete element modeling-Part II: Kinematics. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 51: 1423-1436.
Cundall, P. A and O. D. L. Strack. (1979). A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies. Geotechnique 29 (1): 47 – 65.
Tripodi M A; Puri V M; Manbeck H B; Messing G L (1992). Constitutive models for cohesive particulate materials. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 53(1), 1–21.
Peleg M; Bagley E B (1983). Physical Properties of Foods. AVI Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, CT.
Drucker D C; Prager W (1952). Soil mechanics and plastic analysis or limit design. Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, 10(2), 157–165.
Schofield A N; Wroth C P (1968). Critical State Solid Me-chanics. McGraw Hill, New York, NY.
DiMaggio F L; Sandler I S (1971). Material model for granular soils. Journal of Engineering Mechanics ASCE, 96, 935–950.
Procopio, A.T., Zavaliangos, A., Cunningham, J.C. (2003). Analysis of the diametrical compression test and the appli-cability to plastically deforming materials. Journal of Materials Science 38, 3629–3639.
Aydin, I., Briscoe, B.J., Sanliturk, K.Y., (1996). The internal form of compacted ceramic components: a comparison of a finite element modeling with experiment. Powder Technology 89, 239–254.
Michrafy, A; Ringenbacher, D; Tchoreloff, P. (2002). Mod-eling the compaction behaviour of powders: application to pharmaceutical powders. Powder Technology 127 (3), 257–266.
Sinka, I.C., Cunningham, J.C., Zavaliangos, A. (2003). The effect of wall friction in the compaction of pharmaceutical tablets with curved faces: a validation study of the Druck-er-Prager cap model. Powder Technology 133 (1–3), 33–43.
Cunningham, J.C., Sinka, I.C., Zavaliangos, A., (2004). Analysis of tablet compaction. I. Characterization of me-chanical behavior of powder and powder/tooling friction. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 93 (8), 2022–2039.
Wu, C.Y., Ruddy, O.M., Bentham, A.C., Hancock, B.C., Best, S.M., Elliott, J.A. (2005). Modeling the mechanical behaviour of pharmaceutical powders during compaction. Powder Technology 152 (1–3), 107–117.
Mohammed Jasim Kadhim k; Adil A. Alwan; Iman J. Abed. (2011). Simulation of cold die compaction alumina powder. Trends in Mechanical Engineering& Technology Volume Pages 1-21. 1:1, 1-21.
Secondi J. (2002). Modeling powder compaction: From a pressure-density law to continuum mechanics. Powder Me-tallurgy. 45. 213-217p.
Gaboriault E. M. (2003). The effects of fill-nonuniformities on the densified states of cylindrical green P/M compacts MSc Thesis. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worchester Polytechnic Institute, USA.
Mahoney F. M. and Readey M. J. (1995). Applied mechanics modeling of granulated ceramic powder compaction. Con-ference: 27 International Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering (SAMPE) Technical conference, Albuquerque, NM, USA. 10-12.
Stelte W, Jens K. Holm, Anand R. Sanadi, Soren Barsberg, Jesper Ahrenfeldt, Ulrik B. Henriksen (2010). A study of bonding and failure mechanisms in fuel pellets from different biomass resources. biomass and bio energy 35 910 – 918.
Kaliyan N; Morey R V (2009). Natural binders and solid bridge type binding mechanisms in briquettes and pellets made from corn stover and switchgrass. Bioresource Technology 101. 1082–1090.
Larsson, S. H (2009). "Kinematic wall friction properties of reed canary grass powder at high and low normal stresses," Powder Technology 198 108–113.
Ready M. J. (1995) "Compaction of spray-dried ceramic powders: an experimental study of the factors that control green density" International (SAMPE) Technical conference series. Edited R. J. Martinez, H. 27.
Crawford R. J. and Sprevak D. (1984) European Polymer Journal. 5. 441-446p.
Pease L. F. (2005). A quik tour of powder metallurgy. Ad-vanced Materials and Processes. 163:36-38.
Collins II G. W. (2003). "Fundamental numerical methods and data analysis" NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) USA. 25-50p.
Brewin P. R; Coube, O; Doremus, P and Tweed, J.H. (2008). Modeling of powder die compaction, Springer.
Shima S. and Saleh M. (1993) Variation of density distribution in compacts in lose die compaction with powder characteristics, Advanced in powder metallurgy and Particulate materials, modeling design and computational methods Nashville, Tennessee, USA. 175-188.
Bejarano A; Riera M.D and Prado JM (2003). Simulation of compaction process of a two level powder metallurgical part. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2003. 143-144:34-40.
Scott, J. E.; Kenkre, V. M. and Hurd, A. J. (1998) Nonlocal approach to the analysis of the stress distribution in granular systems. II. Application to experiment. Physical Review E 57 (5) 5850-5857.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186