Ethanolysis of Calabash (Lageneria sinceraria) Seed Oil for the Production of Biodiesel
American Journal of Energy Engineering
Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 141-145
Received: Aug. 18, 2014; Accepted: Sep. 3, 2014; Published: Jan. 8, 2015
Views 3218      Downloads 251
Muhammad Mukhtar, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P. M. B, 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria
Chika Muhammad, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P. M. B, 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria
Musa Usman Dabai, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P. M. B, 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria
Muhammad Mamuda, Sokoto Energy Research Centre, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P. M. B, 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Biodiesel production from plant seed oil and animal fat is not a new technologies, though recently searching for alternative renewable sources of fuel is receiving much attention due to global energy demand and increase in environmental pollution. Currently biodiesel is largely produced from edible oil feedstock which may not be sustainable in the longer term due to its competition with food, thus lead to a search for not edible oil feedstock for the production of green fuel. In view of this, homogeneous transesterification of Lageneraria sinceraria seed oil has been carried out using NaOH catalyst at 65 ͦ C with ethanol which produced a good biodiesel yield of 78% with HHV of 36.34 (MJ/Kg), 0.02% low total water and sediment level, 0.80g/cm3 density, 0.82 g/cm3 specific gravity, 27.20 g/cm3 API gravity, 0.44 mg NaOH/g Acid number and 144oC Flash point. The ethyl ester biodiesel produced, therefore, promises to be a viable source of energy for future use.
Ethyl Ester, Quality Parameters, HHV, Lageneraria Sinceraria, Seed Oil
To cite this article
Muhammad Mukhtar, Chika Muhammad, Musa Usman Dabai, Muhammad Mamuda, Ethanolysis of Calabash (Lageneria sinceraria) Seed Oil for the Production of Biodiesel, American Journal of Energy Engineering. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2014, pp. 141-145. doi: 10.11648/j.ajee.20140206.13
A.B.M.S. Hossain and A. Salleh, Biodiesel fuel production from Algae as renewable energy, American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 4 (3): 250-254, (2008).
B. R. Dhar and K. Kirtania, Excess methanol recovery in biodiesel production process using a distillation column: A simulation study, Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin, 13; Pp. 55-60, (2009).
Y.C. L. Dennis, X. Wu and M.K.H. Leung, a review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification, Applied Energy, 87: Pp. 1083–1095, (2010).
D.Y.C., Leung, X, Wu and M.K.H., Leung, A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed Transesterification, Applied Energy, 87:Pp. 1083–1095, (2010).
R. Luque, L. Herrero-Davila, J. M. Campelo, J. H. Clark, J. M. Hidalgo, D. Luna, J. M. Marinasa and A. A. Romero, Biofuels: a technological perspective, Energy & Environmental Science, 1(5); Pp. 513–596, (2008).
B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave and L. A. Meyer, IPCC, Climate change 2007: Mitigation, Contribution of working group 3 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA, (2007).
A.P. S. Chouhanand A.K., Sarma, Modern heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production:A comprehensive review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15: Pp. 4378 – 4399, (2011).
W. D. Huang and Y. H. P. Zhang, Analysis of biofuels production from sugar based on three criteria: Thermodynamics, bioenergetics, and product separation, Energy& Environmental Science,4:Pp.784-792, (2011).
N.N.A.N. Yusuf, S.K. Kamarudinand, Z. Yaakub, Overview on the current trends in biodiesel production, Energy Conversion and Management,52 , Pp. 2741–2751, (2011).
Y. Zhang, M.A. Du, D.D. McLean and M. Kates, Review Paper; Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: Process design and technological assessment, Bioresource Technology, 89 ,1–16, , (2003).
R. Wang, W. W, Zhou, M. A. Hann, Y. P. Zhang, P. S. Bhadury, Y. Wang, B. A. Song and S. Yang, Biodiesel preparation, optimization, and fuel properties from non-edible feedstock, Daturastramonium L. Fuel, 91, Pp.182–186, (2012).
O. S. Valente, V. M. D. Pasa, C. R. P. Belchior and J. R. Sodré, Physical–chemical properties of waste cooking oil biodiesel and castor oil biodiesel blends, Fuel, 90, Pp. 1700–1702, (2011).
G. Hincapié, F. Mondragón and D., López, Conventional and in situ transesterification of castor seed oil for biodiesel production, Fuel 90, Pp. 1618–1623, (2011).
H.V. Lee , J.C. Juan a Y.H. Taufiq-Yap,(2015), Preparation and application of binary acid–base CaO–La2O3 catalyst for biodiesel production, Renewable Energy, 74:Pp. 124–132(2015)
M. Balat, Potential alternatives to edible oils for biodiesel production – A review of current work,, Energy Conversion and Management, 52, Pp. 1479–1492, (2011).
B. Garbaand A.M. Bashir, Managing energy in Nigeria: Study on energy consumption pattern in selected Rural Areas in Sokoto State. Nigeria Journal of Renewable Energy, 10. (1&2):97-107, (2002).
B. Garba and U. P. Ojukwu, Biodegradation of water Hyacinth as an alternative source of fuel: A review. Journal of Renewable Energy, 6 (1&2): Pp.12-15, (1999).
N. K. Sahoo, A. K. Satyawati and S.N. Naik, Interaction of Jatropha curcas plantation with ecosystem: proceedings of international conference on energy and Enviroment: Pp. 19-21, (2009).
T. Whittington, Biodiesel Production and use by farmers: is it worth considering? Department of agriculture and food, government of western Australia, available at: accessed on 10/03/2013, (2006).
B. R. Moser, and S. F. Vaughn, Efficacy of fatty acid profile as a tool for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production, Biomass and Bioenergy, 3 7, Pp.31-41, ( 2 0 1 2 ).
A. Anastasov, Biodiesel-Basic characteristics, technology and perspectives, Biotecnol&Biotechnol Anniversary scientific conference, available online at, Accessed on 14/03/2013, (2009).
O. Olaofe, H.N Ogungbenle, B.E Akhadelor, A.O Idris, O.V , O.T Omotehinse and O.A Ogunbodede, Physico chemical and fatty acids composition of oils from some legume seeds, International Journal of Biological, Pharmacy and Allied Science, 1(3): 355-363,( 2012)
N. A., Sani , L. G., Hassan, S. M., Dangoggo , M. J., Ladan, I. Ali-baba and K.J. Umar, Effect of Fermentation on the Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of Lagenaria Siceraria Seeds, Journal of Applied Chemistry, 5( 2): Pp. 01-06 , (2013).
S. Puhan, N. Vedaraman, V.B, Boppana, G. Ram, Sankarnarayanan and Jeychendran, Mahua Oil (MadhucaIndica Seed Oil) methyl ester as biodiesel: preparation and emission characteristics. Biomass and Bioenergy, 28:87 – 93,(2005).
S. S. Rahayu and A. Mindaryani, Methanolysis of Coconut Oil: the kinetic of heterogeneous reaction, Proceedings of the world congress on engineering and c omputer science 2009, Vol I, WCECS 2009, October 20-22, 2009, San Francisco,USA, available online at;, Accessed on 14/03/2013, (2009).
Mukhtar, M. Dangoggo, S.M. and Ross,A.B. (2012),Low Temperature/Pressure Hydrothermal Microwave as a Potential Alternative Method of Processing Microalgae, Proceeding of the 35th Chemical Society of Nigeria, Annual and International Conference, 1, Pp. 510-515.
J.V. Gerpen, B. Chanks, R. Pruszo, D. Clements and G. Knoth, Biodiesel Analytical Methods Subcontractor Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. August, 2002-January, 2004, NREL/SR-510-36240, available at; accessed on 16/01/2012, (2004).
A. E Atabani, A. S. Siltonga, H. C Ong, T.M.I. Mahila and H.H. Masjuki, Non-edible vegetable oils: a critical evaluation of oil extraction, fatty acid compositions, biodiesel production, characteristics, engine performance and emissions production, renewable and sustainable energy review, 18; Pp. 211—245, (2013)
S.K, Hoekmana, A, Broch. C., Robbins, E., Ceniceros, M., Natarajan, Review of biodiesel composition, properties and specifications, Renewable and sustainable Energy Reviews, 16. P. 143-169, (2012)
L.F. Ramirez-Verduzeo, J.E. Rodriguez-Rodriguez, A.R. Jaramillo-Jacob, Predicting cetene number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value of biodiesel from its fatty acid methyl ester composition, Fuel, 91, P. 102-111, (2012)
A. Javidialesaadi and S. Raeissi, Biodiesel production from higher free fatty acid content oils: experimental investigation of the pretreatment step, APCBEE procedia,5; Pp. 474-478, (2013)
P. Sexena, S. Jawale and M. Joshipura, A review on prediction of properties of biodiesel and blends of biodiesel, Procedia Engineering, 51; Pp. 395-402, (2013)
K. Sivaramakrishnan and P. Ravikumar, Determination of Cetane number of biodiesel and its influence on physical properties, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 7( 2):Pp. 205-211,(2012)
I.M. Atadashi, M.K. Aroua, A.R. Abdul Aziz and N.M.N. Sulaiman, (2011),Refining technologies for the purification of crude biodiesel, Applied Energy, 88 : 4239–4251
Ross, A.B. and Biller, P. (2011), Potential yields and properties of oil from the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae with different biochemical content, Bioresource Technology, 102: Pp. 215–225.
Knothe, G. (2008). “Designer” Biodiesel: Optimizing fatty ester composition to improve fuel properties. Ener. Fuels 22: 1358-1364.
K. Sivaramakrishnan and P. Ravikumar, Determination of higher heating value of biodiesels, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 3 (11):Pp. 7981-7987,( 2011)
S. A Karmee and A. Chadha, preparation of biodiesel from crude oil of Pongamia Pinnata, Bioresource technology, 96(13); Pp. 1425- 1429, (2005).
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186