Nutrient Exports Under Different Harvesting Regimes in Two Types of Larch Plantation with Different Age in Northeastern China
Journal of Energy and Natural Resources
Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 67-77
Received: Oct. 29, 2016;
Accepted: Nov. 29, 2016;
Published: Dec. 29, 2016
Views 3689 Downloads 80
Hongfeng Wang, School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China; College of Agricultural Resource and Environment, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, China
Xueyun Dong, School of Science, Harbin University, Harbin, China
Yajuan Xing, College of Agricultural Resource and Environment, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, China; Institute of Forestry Science of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, China
Zhengquan Wang, School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China
Guoyong Yan, School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China; College of Agricultural Resource and Environment, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, China
Jianyu Wang, School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China; College of Agricultural Resource and Environment, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, China
Qinggui Wang, School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China; College of Agricultural Resource and Environment, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, China
It has been confirmed in studies conducted in different regions and forest types that the harvesting regime has a significant impact on the export of nutrients from a plantation. Through establishing allometric growth equations and studying nutrient distribution patterns, the amounts of nutrients exported from larch (Larix spp.) plantations with different stand ages under different harvesting regimes (removal of stem wood, branches and bark (Rsbb), removal of stem wood and bark (Rsb), and removal of stem wood (Rs)) were determined in the present study. The results showed the following: 1) the organs of 20-year-old and 40-year-old larch trees exhibited basically the same nutrient distribution pattern. However, due to the difference in biomass partitioning in trees of these ages, they showed a significant difference in the cumulative amounts of nutrients in their organs. Specifically, the cumulative amounts of nutrient elements in the leaves and old branches of 20-year-old larch trees were significantly higher than in 40-year-old larch trees. However, the cumulative amounts of various nutrients in the xylem of the trunks of 20-year-old larch trees were significantly lower than in 40-year-old larch trees. 2) Compared with the Rsbb20, Rsbb40 or Rsb20 could result in significant decreases in the annual mean amounts of nutrients exported, the ratio of the annual mean total amount of nutrients exported to the annual net cumulative total amount of nutrients and the proportion of soil nutrients in the 0-30 cm soil layer. Changing the Rsbb20 to an Rsb40 or an Rs40 could further reduce the annual mean amounts of nutrients exported, the ratio of the annual mean total amount of nutrients exported to the annual net cumulative total amount of nutrients and the proportion of soil nutrients in the 0-30 cm soil layer. 3) Among the examined harvesting regimes, the Rs20 resulted in the lowest annual mean amounts of nutrients being exported. However, there was no significant difference in the annual mean amounts of nutrients exported between the Rs20 and the Rs40. The amounts of N, Ca and Mg exported under the Rs20 were slightly higher than under the Rs40, whereas the amounts of P and K exported under the Rs20 were slightly lower than under the Rs40. Hence, the harvesting regime is an important factor that results in the export of system nutrients and a decline in soil fertility. Therefore, prolonging the harvesting cycle and adopting Rs are two options for reducing the nutrients export.
Nutrient Exports Under Different Harvesting Regimes in Two Types of Larch Plantation with Different Age in Northeastern China, Journal of Energy and Natural Resources.
Vol. 5, No. 6,
2016, pp. 67-77.
Raison R J, Woods P V, Jakobsen B F, et al. 1986. Soil temperatures during and following low-intensity prescribed burning in a Eucalyptus pauciflora forest. Soil Research, 24 (1): 33–47.
Evans, J. 1999b. Sustainability of plantation forestry: impact of species changeand successive rotations of pine in the Usustu Forest, Swaziland. S. Afr. For. J. 184, 63–70.
Merino A, Balboa M A, Soalleiro R R, et al. 2005. Nutrient exports under different harvesting regimes in fast-growing forest plantations in southern Europe. Forest Ecology and Management, 207 (3): 325–339.
Fisher, R. F., Binkley, D., 2000. Ecology and Management of Forest Soils. Wiley, New York.
FAO. 2010. Global forest Resources Assessment 2010-Main Report. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization, 2010; 1–340.
Dambrine, E., Vega, J. A., Taboada, T., Rodrıguez, L., Fernandez, C., Macıas, F., Gras, J. M. 2000. Bilans d'éléments minéraux dans de petits bassins versants forestiers de Galice (NW Espagne). Annals of forest science, 57 (1): 23–38.
Johnson, D. W., Todd, D. E., 1998. Harvesting effects on long-term changes in the nutrient pool of mixed oak forest. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 62, 1725–1735.
Olsson, B. A., Lundkvist, H., Staaf, H., 2000. Nutrient status in needles of Norway spruce and Scots pine following harvesting of logging residues. Plant Soil 23, 161–173.
Gómez, M. X., Calvo de Anta, R., 2001. Ciclo de agua y elementos en suelos forestales (Pinus radiata) de Galicia. III Congreso Forestal Espanol, mesa 2. pp. 567–572.
Miller, H. G., 1984. Dynamics of nutrient cycling in plantation ecosystems. In: Bowen, G. D., Nambiar, E. K. S. (Eds.), Nutrition of Plantation Forests. Academic Press, London, pp. 53–78.
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2008. Wisconsin’s Forestland Woody Biomass Harvesting Guidelines. Madison, WI).
Walker T, Cardellichio P, Colnes A, et al. 2010. Biomass sustainability and carbon policy study. Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences.
Fassbender, H., Bornemisza, E., 1987. Química de Suelos con Énfasis en Suelos de América Latina. Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura (IICA), San Jose´, p. 420.
Vitousek, P., 1982. Nutrient cycling and nutrient use efficiency. Am. Naturalist, 119, 553–572.
Vitousek, P., 1984. Litter, nutrient cycling, and nutrient limitation in tropical forests. Ecology, 65, 285–298.
Wang, D., Bormann, F. H., Lugo, A. E., Bowden, R. D., 1991. Comparison of nutrient-use efficiency and biomass production in five tropical tree taxa. Forest Ecology and Management, 46, 1–21.
Kumar, B. M., Geoga, S. J., Jamaludheen, V., Suresh, T. K., 1998. Comparison of biomass production, tree allometry and nutrient use efficiency of multipurpose trees grown in woodlot and silvopastoral experiments in Kerala, India. Forest Ecology and Management, 112, 145–163.
Smith, K., Gholz, H. L., Oliveira, F. A., 1998. Litter fall and nitrogen-use efficiency of plantations and primary forest in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management, 109, 209–220.
Callaway R M, Walker L R. 1997. Competition and facilitation: a synthetic approach to interactions in plant communities. Ecology, 78 (7): 1958–1965.
Fölster, H., Khanna, P. K., 1997. Dynamics of nutrient supply inplantations soils. In: Nambiar, E. K. S., Brown, A. G. (Eds.), Management of Soil Nutrient and Water in Tropical Plantation Forests. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, pp. 339–378.
Chen Xi-quan. 1986. The effect of community structure of artificial larch wood on physico-chemical properties of Albic soils. Journal of northeast forestry university, s4: 113–116.
Chen Zhiguo Wang Shuchen Che Zhiwen. 1991. Study of both Larix gmelini × Fraxinus mandshurica and Larix gmilinixjuglans mandshurica mixed stand. Journal of Northeast Forestry University, s1: 100–105.
Wang Hongjun, Gong Fang, Zheng Baoren, Chen Dexiang. 1997. Physical and Chemical Properties of the Soil for Larch Plantations. Journal of northeast forestry university 25: 75–79.
Yang K, Zhu J-J, Zhang J-X, et al. 2009. Seasonal dynamics of soil microbial biomass C and N in two larch plantation forests with different ages in Northeastern China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29 (10): 5500–5507.
Yang K, Zhu JJ, Zhang M, et al. 2010. Soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in forest ecosystems of Northeast China: A comparison between natural secondary forest and larch plantation. Journal of Plant Ecology, 3: 175–182.
Yang K, Zhu JJ, Yan QL, et al. 2013. Soil enzyme activities as potential indicators of soluble organic nitrogen pools in forest ecosystems of Northeast China. Annals of Forest Science, 69: 795–803.
Yan Tao, Zhu Jiao-jun, Yang Kai, Yu Li-zhong. 2014. Chinese Aboveground biomass and nutrient distribution patterns of larch plantation in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China. Journal of Applied Ecology, 10: 2772–2778.
Mei L, Zhang Z-W, Gu J-C, et al. 2009. Carbon and nitrogen storages and allocation in tree layers of Fraxinus mandshurica and Larix gmelinii plantations. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 20 (8): 1791–1796.
Mrino A, Balboa MA, Soalleiro RR, et al. 2005. Nutrient exports under different harvesting regimes in fast-growing forest plantations in southern Europe. Forest Ecology and Management, 207: 325–339.
Raulund-Rasmussen K, Stupak I, Clarke N, et al. 2008. Effects of very intensive forest biomass harvesting on short and long term site productivity // Rser D, ed. Sustainable Use of Forest Biomass for Energy: A Synthesis with Focus on the Baltic and Nordic Region. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Springer: 56–67.
Thiffault E, Hannam KD, Paré D, et al. 2011. Effects of forest biomass harvesting on soil productivity in boreal and temperate forests: A review. Environmental Reviews, 19: 278–309.
Feng Z-W, Wang X-K, Wu G. 1999. Biomass and Productivity of Forest Ecosystems in China. Beijing: Science Press.
Li Y-K. 1989. Soil Agricultural and Chemical Routine Analysis Method. Beijing: Science Press, 1989.
Zhang H, Guan DS, Song MW. 2012. Biomass and carbon storage of Eucalyptus and Acacia plantations in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Forest Ecology and Management, 277: 90–97.
Kelly W, Brittney R, James B. 2013. Effects of timber harvest intensity on macronutrient cycling in oak- dominated stands on sandy soils of northwest Wisconsin. Forest Ecology and Management, 291: 1–12
Marcin P, Barthlomiej W, Nicholas H. 2013. Scots pine needles macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S) supply at different reclaimed mine soil substrates: As an indicator of the stability of developed forest ecosystems. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185: 7445–7457.
Feldpausch T R, Rondon M A, Fernandes E C M, et al. 2004. Carbon and nutrient accumulation in secondary forests regenerating on pastures in central Amazonia. Ecological Applications, 14 (sp4): 164–176.
Peri P L, Gargaglione V, Pastur G M. 2008. Above- and belowground nutrients storage and biomass accumulation in marginal Nothofagus antarctica forests in Southern Patagonia. Forest Ecology and Management, 255: 2502–2511.
Hou L, Lei R-D. 2009. Carbon dioxide sequestration of main shrub species in a natural secondary Pinus tabulaeform forest at the Huoditang forest zone in the Qinling Mountains. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29 (11): 6077–6084.
Li Y-Q, Zheng S-W, Su Y-M, et al. 2009. Growth and allometric biomass equations of introduced Agave americana L. in upper reaches of Minjiang River. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29 (9): 4820–4826.
Esau K. 1977. The anatomy of seed plants. Ed. Wiley & Sons, New York.
West G B, Brown J H, Enquist B J. 2001. A general model for ontogenetic growth. Nature, 413 (6856): 628–631.
Wang C. 2006. Biomass allometric equations for 10 co-occurring tree species in Chinese temperate forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 222 (1): 9–16.
Gower, S. T., Kucharik, C. J., Norman, J. M., 1999. Direct and indirect estimationof leaf area index, F (APAR), and net primary production of terrestrial ecosystems. Remote Sens. Environ. 70, 29–51.
Niklas, K. J. 1994. Plant Allometry: The Scaling of Form and Process. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Ter-Mikaelian, M. T., Korzukhin, M. D., 1997. Biomass equations for sixty-ﬁve North American tree species. Forest Ecology and Management, 97, 1–24.
Ketterings, Q. M., Coe, R., Van Noordwijk, M., Ambagau, Y., Palm, C. A. 2001. Reducing uncertainty in the use of allometric biomass equations for predicting above-ground tree biomass in mixed secondary forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 146, 199–209.
Bond-Lamberty, B., Wang, C., Gower, S. T. 2002. Aboveground and below-ground biomass and sapwood area allometric equations for six boreal tree species of northern Manitoba. Can. J. For. Res. 32, 1441–1450.
Crow, T. R., and Schlaegel, B. E. 1988. A guide to using regression equations for estimating tree biomass. North. J. Appl. For. 5: 15–22.
Buech, R. R., and Rugg, D. J. 1989. Biomass relations of shrub components and their generality. Forest Ecology and Management, 26: 257–264.
Houghton RA, Lawrence KT, Hackler JL, Brown S. 2001. The spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Brazilian Amazon: a comparison of estimates. Global Change Biology, 7 (7): 731–746.
Saatchi SS, Houghton RA, Dos Santos Alvala RC, Soares JV, Yu Y. 2007. Distribution of aboveground live biomass in the Amazon basin. Global Change Biology, 13 (4): 816–837.
King JS, Giardina CP, Pregitzer KS, Friend AL. 2007. Biomass partitioning in red pine (Pinus resinosa) along a chronosequence in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Can J For Res, 37 (1): 93–102.
Son Y, Hwang J W, Kim Z S, et al. 2001. Allometry and biomass of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) in central Korea. Bioresource Technology, 78 (3): 251–255.
Ericsson T, Ingestad T. 1988. Nutrition and growth of birch seedlings at varied relative phosphorus addition rates. Physiologia Plantarum, 72 (2): 227–235.
Ingestad T, Agren G I. 1991. The Influence of Plant Nutrition on Biomass Allocation. Ecological Applications, 1 (2): 168–174.
Fabião, A., Madeira, M., Steen, E., Kätterer, T., Ribeiro, C., & Araújo, C. 1994. Development of root biomass in an Eucalyptus globulus plantation under different water and nutrient regimes. Plant & Soil, 168-169 (1), 215–223.
Larigauderie A, Reynolds J F, Strain B R. 1994. Root response to CO2 enrichment and nitrogen supply in loblolly pine. Plant & Soil, 165 (1): 21–32.
Mackiedawson L A, Millard P, Proe M F. 1995. The Effect Of Nitrogen Supply On Root Growth And Development In Sycamore And Sitka Spruce Trees. Forestry, 68 (2): 107–114.
Proe M F, Millard P. 1995. Effect of P supply upon seasonal growth and internal cycling of P in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong) carr) seedlings. Plant & Soil, 168-169 (1): 313–317.
Ibrahim L, Proe M F, Ad. C. 1998. Interactive effects of nitrogen and water availabilities on gas exchange and whole-plant carbon allocation in poplar. Tree Physiology, 18 (7): 481–487.
Topa M A, Jm. C. 1992. Carbon and phosphorus partitioning in Pinus serotina seedlings growing under hypoxic and low-phosphorus conditions. Tree Physiology, 10 (2): 195–207.
Proe M F, Millard P. 1995. Effect of N supply upon the seasonal partitioning of N and P uptake in young Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Canadian journal of forest research, 25 (10): 1704–1709.
Rapp M, Santa Regina I, Rico M, et al. 1999. Biomass, nutrient content, litterfall and nutrient return to the soil in Mediterranean oak forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 119 (1): 39–49.
Yowhan Son. Jae Woo, H wang, Zin Suh Kim, Woo Kyun Lee, Jong Sung Kim. 2001. Allometry and biomass of Korean pine in central Korea. Bioresourse technology, 2001 (78): 251–255.
Xiao CW, Ceulemans R. 2004. Allometric relationships for below- and aboveground biomass of young Scots pines. Forest Ecology and Management, 203 (l/3): 177–186.
Castilho CV, Magnusson WE, Araujo RN, Luizao RCC, Luizao FJ, Lima AP, Higuchi N. 2006. Variation in aboveground tree live biomass in a central Amazonian Forest: Effects of soil and topography. Forest Ecology and Management, 234: 85–96.
Peichl M, Arain M A. 2007. Allometry and partitioning of above- and belowground tree biomass in an age-sequence of white pine forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 253: 68–80.
Magnani F, Mencuccini M, Grace J. 2000. Age-related decline in stand productivity: the role of structural acclimation under hydraulic constraints. Plant Cell Environ 23: 251–263.
Satoo, T., Madgwick, H. A. I., 1982. Forest Biomass. M. Nijhoff /Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Boston, 152 pp.
Helmisaari, H.-S., Makkonen, K., Kellomaki, S., Valtonen, E., Malkonen, E., 2002. Below- and above-ground biomass, production and nitrogen use in Scots pine stands in eastern Finland. Forest Ecology and Management, 165, 317–326.
Montagu KD, Duttmer K, Barton CVM, Cowie AL. 2005. Developing general allometric relationships for regional estimates of carbon sequestration—an example using Eucalyptus pilularis from seven contrasting sites. Forest Ecology and Management, 204: 113–127.
Lee YJ, Lee MH, Lee KH, Son YM, Seo JH, Park IH, Son Y. 2006. Effects of stand age classes on biomass expansion factors and stem densities in Chamaecyparis obtusa plantations. J Korean For Soc 95: 50–54 (in Korean).
Caldentey, J., Schmidt, H., Bowen, H. 1993. Acumulación de biomasa ynutrientes en rodales de Lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) en Magallanes, Chile. In: Proceedings of the VII Jornadas Técnicas Forestales: Ecosistemas Forestales Nativos—Uso, Manejo y Conservación, El Dorado, Argentina, pp. 22–36.
Hart, P. B. S., Clinton, P. W., Allen, R. B., Nordmeyer, A. H., Evans, G. 2003. Biomass and macro- nutrients (above-and below-ground) in a New Zealand beech (Nothofagus) forest ecosystem: implications for storage and sustain-able forest management. Forest Ecology and Management, 174, 281–294.
Peri P L, Gargaglione V, Pastur G M. 2006. Dynamics of above-and below-ground biomass and nutrient accumulation in an age sequence of Nothofagus antarctica forest of Southern Patagonia. Forest Ecology and Management, 233 (1): 85–99.
Kirschbaum, M. U. F. 1995. The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition and the effect of global warming on soil organic carbon storage. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 27: 753–760.
Hobbie, S. E., Schimel, J. R, Trumbore, S. E. & Randerson, J. R. 2000. A mechanistic understanding of carbon storage and turnover in high-latitude soils. Global Change Biology, 6: 196–210.
Hobbie, S. E., Nadelhoffer, K. J. & Hogberg, R. 2002. A synthesis: the role of nutrients as constraints on carbon balances in boreal and arctic regions. Plant and Soil, 242: 163–170.
Han W, Fang J, Guo D, et al. 2005. Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry across 753 terrestrial plant species in China. New Phytologist, 168 (2): 377–385.
Verry E S, Timmons D R. 1977. Precipitation nutrients in the open and under two forests in Minnesota. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 7 (1): 112–119.
Sparks J P. 2009. Ecological ramifications of the direct foliar uptake of nitrogen [J]. Oecologia, 159 (1): 1–13.
Woods, R. V. 1990. Second rotation decline in P. radiata plantations in South Australia has been corrected. Water Air Soil Poll. 54, 607–619.
McNabb, K. L., Wadouski, L. H., 1999. Multiple rotation yields for intensively managed plantations in the Amazon basin. New For., 18 (1), 5–15.
Mroz GD, Jurgensen MF and Frederick DJ. 1985. Soil nutrient changes following whole tree harvesting on tree northern hardwood sites. Soil Soc. Sci, 49: 1552–1557.
Gessel S P, Tweruer J. 1990. Potential nutritional problems in main tenancy of long term southern hemisphere plant at ion productivity. IUFRO 19th World Congress Proceedings, Canada.
Dahlgren RA, Driscoll CT. 1994. The effects of whole tree clear cutting on soil processes at the Hubbard Brook experimental forest. Plant Soil, 158: 239– 262.
Mohammad AH, Ahmad J and Hamid RK. 1997. Deforest at ion effects on soil physical and chemical properties, Lordegan, Ran. Plant and Soil, 190: 301– 308.
Ma X, Heal K V, Liu A, et al. 2007. Nutrient cycling and distribution in different-aged plantations of Chinese fir in southern China. Forest Ecology and Management, 243 (1): 61–74.