Foraging Patterns of Birds in Resource Partitioning in Tropical Mixed Dry Deciduous Forest, India
A study was undertaken in the tropical mixed dry deciduous forest of India. Direct observation on foraging of birds was made on twelve days in a month within four hours after sunrise with direct observation. For each foraging attempt microhabitat details such as the foraging height, substrate, method, canopy and the plant species were recorded. Vegetation profile consisted of tree species from 2 to 6m and shrubs from 0 to 1m height. In total, 3982 foraging observations were made on 36 bird species. A higher percentage of foraging manoeuvre was recorded at 3-6m height. 29 bird species were gleaner. Majority of the canopy layers used for foraging of bird species were edge edge (23%) followed by ground (18%) and middle lower (17%). Grey Jungle Fowl, Vernal Hanging Parrot and Red-rumped Swallow are specialists. The higest mean niche overlap among the species was found in method followed by canopy and height. The two major guilds are gleaner and sallier.
Foraging Patterns of Birds in Resource Partitioning in Tropical Mixed Dry Deciduous Forest, India, Journal of Energy and Natural Resources.
Vol. 5, No. 2,
2016, pp. 16-29.
N. B. Davies, “Ecological questions about territorial behaviour. In Behavioural ecology- an evolutionary approach” (Eds.) J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Blackwell scientific publications. Oxford, London Edinburgh and Melbourne. 1978, pp. 317-350.
J. A. Wiens, “Ecology of bird communities”. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989 Vol. 1 & 2.
F. H. J Crome, Foraging ecology of an assemblage of birds in lowland rainforest in Northern Queensland. Aust. J. Ecol. 3: 1978, pp. 195-212.
R. T. Holmes, R. E. Jr. Bonney and S. W Dalala, “Guild structure of the Hubbard Brook bird community: a multivariate approach” Ecology. 60: 1979, pp. 512-520.
V. Gokula and L. Vijayan, “Foraging patterns of birds in the thorn forest of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Southern India” J. South Asian Nat. Hist. 5 (2): 2001, pp. 143–152.
H. F. Recher, R. T. Holmes, M. Schulz, J. Shields and R. Kavanagh, “Foraging patterns of breeding birds in eucalyptus forest and woodland of Southern Australia”. Aust. J. Ecol. 10: 1985, pp. 399-419.
R. Mac Nally, “Habitat specific guild structure of forest birds in southeastern Australia: a regional scales perspective”, J. Anim. Ecol. 63: 1994, pp. 988-1001.
H. G. Champion and S. K. Seth, “A revised survey of the forest types of India”, Government of India publications”. New Delhi, India, 1968.
C. J. Bibby, N. D Burgess and D. A. Hill, “Bird census techniques. British Trust for Ornithology and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds” Academic Press, London. 1993, pp. 66-84.
G. P. Bell, G. A. Bartholomew and K. A. Nagy, “The roles of energetics, water economy, foraging behavior, and geothermal refugia in the distribution of the bat, Macrotus californicus”. J. Comp. Psych. B. 156: 1986, pp. 441-450.
J. V. Ramsen and S. K. Robinson, - A classification scheme for foraging behaviour of birds in terrestrial habitats. Studies in Avian Biology 123: 1990, 144-160.
R. C. Mac Nally, “On characterizing foraging versatalization illustrated by using birds” Oikos. 69: 1994, pp. 95-106.
M. L. Morrison, “Influence of sample size and sampling design on analysis of avian foraging behavior” Condor. 86: 1984, 146-150.
C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, “The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press”, Urbana, 1949.
H. S. Horn, - The measurement of 'overlap' in comparative ecological studies. Am. Nat. 100: 1966, pp. 419-424.
L. Legendre and P. Legendre, - Numerical ecology. Developments in environmental modelling, Elsevier Sci. Publ. Co., Amsterdem, 1983.
F. L Rohlf., “Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System”. Exeter publishing, Setauket, New York 1987.
M. J. Norusis, -“SPSS Inc. SPSS release 6.0 for Unisys 6000”, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 1994.
R. H. Mac Arthur and J. W. MacArthur, - On bird species diversity. Ecology. 42 (3): 1961, pp. 594-598.
T. Nirmala, L. Vijayan, “Breeding behaviour of the Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicata in the Anaikatty hills, Coimbatore”, pp. 43–46. In: Proceedings of 28th ESI Conference, (2003), pp. 7–8.
M. Samantha, Lantz, E. Dale, Gawlie, I. Marce and Cook, “The effect of water depth and submerged Aquatic vegetation on the success of wading birds Condor 112 (3): 2010, pp. 460-469.
T. Piersma, “Energetic bottles and other de-sing constrains in avian annual cycles” Integrative and comparative Biology, 42: 2002, pp. 51-67.
S. Mohammad, Mansor and A. Shahrul Mohamed Sah, “Foraging Patterns reveal niche separation in tropical insectivorous birds”, Acta Ornithologic Vol. 47, 2012.
R. V. Alatalo, “Interspecific competition in tits Parus spp. and the Goldcrest Regulus regulus: foraging shifts in multispecific flocks” Oikos. 37: 1981, pp. 335-344.
L. Vijayan, “Comparative biology of Drongos (Family: Dicruridae, Class: Aves) with special reference to ecological Isolation” Ph. D. Thesis, Bombay University, Bombay, 1984.
J. H. Carothers, -“Behavioral and ecological correlates of interference competition among some Hawaiian drepanidinae” Auk. 103: 1986, pp. 564–574.
M. Elizabeth Baters and Bart M. Ballard “Factors influencing behavior and success of foraging Reddish Egrets (Egretta rufescents)”, water birds 37 (2): 2014, pp. 191-202.
S. K. Robinson and R. T. Holmes, -“Foraging behaviour of forest birds: the relationships among search tactics, diet, and habitat structure”, Ecology. 63: 1982, pp. 1918-1931.
A. G. Wheeler and M. C. Calver, “Resource partitioning in an Island community of insectivores birds during winter” Emu. 96: 1996, pp. 23-31.
M. Diaz, J. C Illera. and J. C. Atienza, “Food resource matching by foraging tits parus spp. during spring – summer in a mediterranean mixed forest; evidence for an ideal free distribution” Ibis. 140: 1998, pp. 654–660.
L. Racheal, Pierce and E. Dale Gawlik “Wadding birds foraging habitats selection in the florida Everglader” Water birds 33 (4): 2010, pp. 494-503.
R. J. Saffron, M. A. Colwell, C. R. Isola and O. E. Taft, “Foraging site selection by nonbreeding White-faced Ibis” Condor 102: 2000, pp. 221-225.
R. E. Bennetts, P. C. Darby and L. B. Karunaratne, “Foraging patch selection by snail kites in response to vegetation structure and prey abundance and availability” Water birds 29: 2006, pp. 88-94.
E. D. Stolen, J. A. Collazo and H. F Percivan, “Vegetation effects on fish distribution in impounded salt marshes” South Eastern Naturalist 8: 2010, pp. 503-514.
R. Greenberg, - The Winter exploitation systems of Bay-breasted and Chestnut-sided warblers in Panama. University of California. Publ. Zool. 116: 1984a, pp. 1-107.
R. Greenberg, “Neophobia in the foraging site selection of a neotropical migrant bird: an experimental study. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 81: 1984b pp. 3778-3780.
A. Rolando and C. A Robotti., “Foraging niches of tits and associated species in north-western Italy” Boll. Zool. 52: 1985, pp. 281-297.
T. Szekely, “Foraging structure of the foliage-gleaning and bark-foraging guild in winter and spring. Proc. Fifth Nordic Ornithological Congress: 1985, pp. 140-146.