Journal of Energy and Natural Resources
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 66-76
Received: Oct. 15, 2014;
Accepted: Oct. 31, 2014;
Published: Nov. 10, 2014
Views 2773 Downloads 242
Abel Malyango Masota, Tanzania Forest Services (TFS), P.O. Box 40832, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Eliakimu Zahabu, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Forest Mensuration and Management, P.O. Box 3013, Morogoro, Tanzania
Rogers Ernest Malimbwi, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Forest Mensuration and Management, P.O. Box 3013, Morogoro, Tanzania
Ole Martin Bollandsås, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Ås, Norway
Tron Haakon Eid, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Ås, Norway
The present study was the first to develop total tree, stem and branches volume models for rainforests in south-eastern Africa based on destructive sampling. The number of sample trees was 60 and diameter at breast height (dbh) and total tree height (h) ranged from 6 to 117 cm and from 6.4 m to 50 m, respectively. Large parts of the total volume and stem volume variations were explained by the models (Pseudo-R2 ranged from 0.85 to 0.93) and they performed relatively well over different size classes. When considering the challenges in height measurements in rainforests, we in general recommend applying model 3 with dbh only as independent variable. For large trees we recommend model 2 (dbh and h as independent variables) because of the moderating effect h has on volume predictions. If accurate stem volumes are needed for forestry licensing or for calculating compensation of timber loss, we also recommend model 2. As long as the allometry of the trees obviously is not different from that of our study site, the developed models may also be applied for rainforests elsewhere in Tanzania, but further testing of the models is also recommended.
Abel Malyango Masota,
Rogers Ernest Malimbwi,
Ole Martin Bollandsås,
Tron Haakon Eid,
Volume Models for Single Trees in Tropical Rainforests in Tanzania, Journal of Energy and Natural Resources.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2014, pp. 66-76.
Abbot, P., Lowore, J, Werren, M. (1997). Models for the estimation of single tree volume in four Miombo woodland types. For. Ecol. Manage. 97: 25-37.
Adekunle, V.A.J. (2007). Nonlinear regression models for timber volume estimation in natural forest ecosystems, South Nigeria. Research Journal of Forestry 1:40-54.
Adekunle, V.A.J., Nair, K.N., Srivastava, A. K., Singh, N. K. (2013). Models and form factors for stand volume estimation in natural forest ecosystems: a case study of Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (KGWS), Bahraich District, India. Journal of Forestry Research 24: 217-226.
Akindele, S.O., LeMay, V. M. (2006). Development of tree volume equations for common timber species in the tropical rain forest area of Nigeria. For. Ecol. Manage. 226: 41-48.
Alder, D. (1982). Stock volume tables for indigenous trees on Subiri River Fr. UNDP/FAO/GHA/74/013, Takoradi, Ghana.
Castañeda, F. (2011). Current status and trends of forest management in tropical Africa. In: C.J. Geldenhuys, C. Ham, H. Ham (eds), Sustainable Forest Management in Africa: Some Solutions to Natural Forest Management Problems in Africa. Proceedings of the Sustainable Forest Management in Africa Symposium. Stellenbosch, 3-7 November 2008.
Chamshama, S. A.O., Mugasha, A.G., Zahabu, E. (2004). Biomass and volume estimation for miombo woodland at Kitulangalo, Morogoro, Tanzania. S. Afr. J. Sci. 200: 49-60.
Dadzie, P. K. (2013). Potential contribution of branchwood quantity, left after logging operations, towards reducing depletion rate and preserving Ghana’s forest ecosystem. American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 1: 32-39.
Dietz, J., Kuyah, S. (2011). Guidelines for establishing regional allometric equations for biomass estimation through destructive sampling. Carbon Benefits Project: Modelling, Measurement and Monitoring. World Agroforestry Centre ICRAF/GEF-UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya.
Feldpausch, T.R., Banin, L., Phillips, O. L., Baker, T. R., Lewis, S.L., Quesada, C. A. et al. (2011). Height–diameter allometry of tropical forest trees. Biogeosciences 8: 1081-1106.
Frontier Tanzania (2001). Doody, K.Z., Howell, K.M., Fanning, E. (eds), Amani Nature Reserve: A biodiversity survey. East Usambara Conservation Area Management Programme Technical Paper No. 52. Frontier Tanzania; Forestry and Beekeeping Division and Metsähallitus Consulting, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Vantaa, Finland. 117 pp.
Gertner, G. (1991). Prediction bias and response surface curvature. For. Sci.37: 755-765.
Henry, M., Picard, N., Trotta, C., Manlay, R. J., Valentini, R., Bernoux, M., Saint-André, L. (2011). Estimating tree biomass of sub-Saharan African forests: a review of available allometric equations. Silva Fennica 45: 477–569.
Hunter, M.O., Keller, M., Vitoria, D., Morton, D.C. (2013). Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation. Biogeosciences Discussions 10: 10491-10529.
Husch, B., Beers, T.W., Kershaw, J.A. (2003). Forest Mensuration. 4th Ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New Jersey, USA. 949 pp.
Kashaigili , J.J., Mdemu, M.V., Nduganda, A.R., Mbilinyi, B.P. (2013). Integrated Assessment of Forest Cover Change and Above-Ground Carbon Stock in Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves, Tanzania. Advances in Remote Sensing 2: 1-9.
Larjavaara, M., Muller-Landau, H.C. (2013). Measuring tree height: a quantitative comparison of two common field methods in a moist tropical forest. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4: 793–801.
Malimbwi, R.E., Philip, M.S. (1989). A compatible taper/volume estimation system for Pinus patula at Sao Hill Forest project, Southern Tanzania. For. Ecol. Manage.31: 109-115.
Malimbwi, R.E., Solberg, B., Luoga, E. (1994). Estimation of biomass and volume in miombo woodland at Kitulanghalo Forest Reserve, Tanzania. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 7: 230-242.
Malimbwi, R.E., Mugasha, A.G., Chamshama, S.A.O., Zahabu, E. (1998). Volume tables for Tectona grandis at Mtibwa and Longuza forest plantations, Tanzania. Forest Record 71: 1-23.
Masota, A.M., Zahabu, E., Malimbwi, R., Bollandsås, O.M., Eid, T. (2014). Allometric models for estimating above- and belowground biomass of individual trees in Tanzanian tropical rainforests. Unpublished.
Mayaux, P., Bartholome,´ E., Fritz, S,, Belward, A. (2004). A new land-cover map of Africa for the year 2000. Journal of Biogeography 31: 861–877.
Mayaux, P., Pekel, J.F., Desclée, B., Donnay, F., Lupi, A., Achard, F., Clerici, M., Bodart, C., Brink, A., Nasi, R., Belward, A. (2013). State and evolution of African rainforests between 1990 and 2010. Phil Trans R Soc B., 368: 20120300, http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0300.
Mgumia, F. (2014). Implications of forestland tenure reforms on forest conditions, forest governance and community livelihoods at Amani Nature Reserve, PhD Thesis, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania.280 pp. Unpublished.
Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (MNRT) (2007). New royalty rates for forest products. Government Notice No. 231. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 12pp.
Mpanda, M.M., Luoga, E. J., Kajembe, G. E., Eid, T. (2011). Impact of forestland tenure changes on forest cover, stocking and tree species diversity in Amani Nature Reserve, Tanzania. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 20: 215–230.
Mugasha, W.A., Bollandsås, O.M., Eid, T. (2013). Relationships between diameter and height of trees for natural tropical forest in Tanzania. Southern Forests 75: 221–237.
Munishi, P.K.T., Shear, T.H. (2004). Carbon storage in afromontane rainforests of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania: their net contribution to atmospheric carbon. J. Trop. Forest Sci. 16: 78–93.
Newmark, D.W. (2001). Tanzanian forest edge microclimatic gradients: Dynamic patterns Biotropica 33: 2-11.
Philip, M.S. (1994). Measuring trees and forests. 2nd Edition. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 310pp.
SAS® Instute Inc. (2004). SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Segura, M., Kanninen, M. (2005). Allometric models for tree volume and total above ground biomass in a tropical humid forest in Costa Rica. Biotropica 37:2–8.
Sterck, F.J, Bongers, F. (2001). Crown development in tropical rain forest trees: patterns with tree height and light availability. Journal of Ecology 89:1–13.
Tomppo, E., Malimbwi, R., Katila, M., Mäkisara, K., Henttonen, H., Chamuya, N., Zahabu, E., Otieno, J.A. (2014). Sampling design for a large area forest inventory - case Tanzania. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 10.1139/cjfr-2013-0490.
Triola, M. F. (2012). Elementary Statistics. 12th Edition Pearson Publisher. 840 pp.
United Republic of Tanzania (URT) (2009). Fourth national report on implementation of Convention on biological diversity (CBD). Division of Environment, Vice Presisent’s Office, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 81 pp.
United Republic of Tanzania (URT) (2010). National forest resources monitoring and assessment of Tanzania (NAFORMA). Field manual. Biophysical survey. NAFORMA document M01–2010, 108 pp.
Zahabu, E. (2008). Sinks and Sources: A strategy to involve forest community in Tanzania in global climate policy. PhD-Thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, 235 pp.