Monitoring the Levels of Essential and Trace Metals in Groundwater along Fuoni Area in Zanzibar
Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science
Volume 5, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 37-46
Received: May 24, 2016; Accepted: Jun. 3, 2016; Published: Jun. 21, 2016
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Authors
Abdul Ali Juma Mohamed, Department of Natural Sciences, State University of Zanzibar (SUZA), Zanzibar, Tanzania
Sara A. Khamis, Department of Natural Sciences, State University of Zanzibar (SUZA), Zanzibar, Tanzania
Miza Ali Kombo, Department of Natural Sciences, State University of Zanzibar (SUZA), Zanzibar, Tanzania
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Abstract
Physico-chemical parameters of groundwater resources were studied in Fuoni area allocated at West District of Zanzibar Island. In June 2014, water samples were collected from ten groundwater sources for physico-chemical analysis. The chemical parameters include twenty metals (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr (III), Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl, V and Zn). Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) determined the dissolved metal concentrations. The levels of total dissolved solid (TDS), turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), and pH were also determined using Horiba multi-parameter water quality meter. There was no detection for the levels of Al, Be, Cd, Co, and Mn in all water samples. Notably, the physico-chemical parameters suggest that the groundwaters in this area are generally good for domestic use per World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Nevertheless, 40% of the analyzed water samples had elevated levels of calcium as compared to WHO guideline for calcium. Turbidity levels in majority of water samples were beyond the recommended guideline value. Both Sr/Ni ratio and Li/Ni ratio were greater than 1. Furthermore, four heavy metals namely, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb were used in a multivariate hazard analysis. The hazard analysis aimed at evaluating a potential human health risks associated with water consumption from the study area. The analysis included, heavy metal evaluation index (HEI), heavy metal pollution index (HPI), degree of metal contamination (Cd), and hazard quotient which yields hazard index (HI). Generally, there was no apparent risk to water consumers from being exposed to studied metals. Nevertheless, knowledge and awareness of the quality of drinking water is crucial, hence, the presence of trace and heavy metals in water sources necessitates the need of regular monitory of water sources. Therefore, a good and sustainable management of drinking water quality is an inevitable factor in preventing and controlling of the waterborne diseases.
Keywords
Hazard Index, Sr/Ni Ratio, Thallium, Fuoni, Zanzibar
To cite this article
Abdul Ali Juma Mohamed, Sara A. Khamis, Miza Ali Kombo, Monitoring the Levels of Essential and Trace Metals in Groundwater along Fuoni Area in Zanzibar, Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2016, pp. 37-46. doi: 10.11648/j.wros.20160503.12
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Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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