Please enter verification code
Arsenicosis Case Identification, Diagnosis and Management Protocol for Early Patient Medicare Administration and Treatment
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 3, Issue 3-1, June 2015, Pages: 1-9
Received: Jan. 20, 2015; Accepted: Jan. 20, 2015; Published: Mar. 8, 2015
Views 3734      Downloads 129
Islam-ul-haque , Ecological Sustainability through Environment Protection Services (Eco-STEPS), Inc, Islamabad-Pakistan
Article Tools
Follow on us
Many countries in the world, especially South Asia e.g., Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Vietnam, China and Myanmar are facing ground water arsenic contamination problems and it has been recognized as an emerging threat and challenge to public health (Ahmad et al, 2004). Pakistan, following the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh and in other neighboring countries, has recognized the need of assessing drinking water quality for arsenic contamination in late nineties (PCRWR 2002). Ground water arsenic contamination has emerged as a serious socio-economic and human health concerns all over the world, including Pakistan. Likewise , around 25-36 % population of two provinces in Pakistan is exposed to drinking water arsenic contamination over 10 ppb. It may be reasonable to disregard the presence of some arsenic in the water, but beyond 50 ppb is considered dangerous (NAPAM 2005). Keeping in view the adverse impacts of arsenic contamination on human health, various initiatives by different governmental and non-governmental departments and organizations were taken, without resource integration and prudent coordination mechanisms amongst the various stakeholders (IUCN, 2007). These practices resulted in wastages of scarce resources, rather than pooling up all the resources and getting maximum. During this process some experiences have been gained related to planning, implementation, monitoring and management of arsenic mitigation. As arsenic contamination causes serious health issues, therefore, the timely identification and diagnosis of arsenicosis patients remained a major problem due to absence of standard operating procedures / protocols . The arsenicosis patients identification was being observed and realized after the appearance of arsenicosis symptoms, like skin pigmentation etc, on the body parts of the effected persons. Over and above, there was no set procedures to administer the treatment and case management of such arsenicosis patients. Therefore, well designed protocols or standard operating procedures have been documented which may assist while carrying out identification of suspected arsenicosis patients. This paper will provide road map for arsenicosis diagnostic procedures, treatment administration , case management and behavioral change communication by creating awareness amongst such affected communities, prior getting prey of arsenicosis victim.
Arsenicosis Diagnosis Protocol, Arsenic mitigation approaches, Ground Water Quality
To cite this article
Islam-ul-haque , Arsenicosis Case Identification, Diagnosis and Management Protocol for Early Patient Medicare Administration and Treatment, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Special Issue: Ground Water Arsenic Contamination and Action Plan for Mitigation. Vol. 3, No. 3-1, 2015, pp. 1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.s.2015030301.11
Ahmad, T, Kahlown, M. A, Tahir, A, & Hifza, R. (2004), “Arsenic an Emerging Issue: Experiences from Pakistan”, Paper Presented at 30th WEDC International Conference Vietiane, Lao PDR.
Bhattacharya, P., Chatterjee, D. & Jacks, G. (1996) Options to safeguard groundwater from arseniferous aquifers in West Bengal, India. In: Pickford, J. et al. (Eds.) Reaching the Unreached-Challenges for the 21st Century, Proceedings of the 22nd WEDC Conference, New Delhi, India, pp. 258-261.
Bhattacharya, P., Nordqvist, S. & Jacks, G. (1998) Soil contamination by As, Cu, Cr and Zn at a wood preservation site: Experimental studies of remedial techniques. Boreal Environmental Research, (in review).
Bhattacharaya, P., Larsson, M., Leiss, A., Jacks, G., Sracek, A., Chatterjee, D., 1998b. Genesis of arseniferous groundwater in the alluvial aquifers of Bengal Delta Plains and strategies for low-cost remediation (abstract). In: Proc. Int. Conf. on As pollution of ground water in Bangladesh: causes, e€ects and remedies. Dhaka, Bangladesh, Feb. 8-12, 1998.
Dhungana J (2012), The Problem of Unhygienic Bottled Water by International Journal of Infection and Microbiology vol1, No 2, 2012,
IPH (2003) Prevalence of Arsenicosis due to Ingestion of Arsenic through Drinking Water: An epidemiological Survey from Seven Districts of Punjab. Institute of Public Health, Government of Punjab (Supported by UNICEF).
ICUN (2007), Bangladesh Capacity Development Action Plan for Sustainable Environmental Governance, Ministry of Environment and Forests Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh December 2007, ISBN: 984-8574-27-1.
Islam (2012), Islam ul Haque, Hanif W, Hasnain G & Durez S, Socio-economic Impacts on Human Life in Arsenic Affected Area of Basti Rasul Pur, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan, Sustainable Agriculture Research; Vol. 1, No. 2; 2012, ISSN 1927-050X E-ISSN 1927-0518, Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Jordan, A., F. Aslund, E. Pontis, P. Reichard, A. Holmgren 1997. Characterization of Escherichia coli NrdH.a glutaredoxin-like protein with a thioredoxin-like activity profile. J.Biol.Chem. 272:18044-18050.
National Academy of Sciences. 1999. Arsenic in Drinking Water. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
NAPAM (2005), National Action Plan for Arsenic Mitigation published by Ministry of Environment Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
PCRWR (2002), “Water quality status in Pakistan, 1st report 2001-2002,” Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, 2002.
PCRWR (2003a) Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater of Southern Punjab. PCRWR, Ministry of S&T, Government of Pakistan (Supported by UNICEF).
SAFWCO (2003) Survey & Testing for Arsenic Mitigation Programme: Khairpur and Dadu Districts. Agricultural & Forestry Workers Coordinating Organization-SAFWCO, Sindh, (Supported by UNICEF).
Saldivar (2009), Andreas Saldivar & Vicki Soto, Arsenic: An Abundant Natural Poison, ProQuest Discovery Guides Released March 2009
Smith T, Groen AD, Wynn JW (2000), Randomized trial of intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder, Am J Ment Retard. 2000 Jul;105(4):269-85.
USGS, 1998 (United States Geological Survey), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1002 Area, Petroleum Assessment, 1998, Including Economic Analysis.
USGS, 1999 (United States Geological Survey), A Summary of the U.S. Geological Survey 1999 Resource Assessment of Selected Coal Zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains Region, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2189, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). 1984. The development of data quality objectives. Prepared by the EPA quality assurance management staff and the DQO workgroup. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Wester, R.C., H.I. Maibach, et al. 1993a. In vivo and in vitro percutaneous absorption and skin decontamination of arsenic from water and soil. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 336-340.
Wester, R.C., H.I. Maibach, et al. 1993b. Percutaneous absorption of pentachlorophenol from soil. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 68-71.
WHO Fact Sheet No. 210. (2001) Arsenic in Drinking Water. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Prepared for World Water Day 2001. Reviewed by staff and experts from the Programme for Promotion of Chemical Safety (PCS), and the Water, Sanitation and Health unit (WSH), World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva 78(9):1096.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186