Presence of Agricultural Herbicide Atrazine in Water, Foods, and Human Urine Samples
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 5, Issue 1, February 2017, Pages: 9-13
Received: Feb. 6, 2017;
Accepted: Feb. 17, 2017;
Published: Mar. 4, 2017
Views 1942 Downloads 109
Anthony Concilla, Department of Biology, Morosky College of Health Professions and Sciences, Gannon University, Erie, USA
He Liu, Department of Biology, Morosky College of Health Professions and Sciences, Gannon University, Erie, USA
Atrazine is a commonly used water-soluble agricultural herbicide in the United States. In this study, we measured the atrazine levels in water, beverages, foods, and urine samples obtained from young students at an urban university. The effects of physiological and behavioral factors were examined. Our results show that water samples obtained from Lake Erie and tap water both contained very low level of atrazine. Beverages and foods had various levels of atrazine contamination. Atrazine was also detected in the urine samples and mid-term physical activity appeared to be a factor to reduce the atrazine level in these subjects.
Presence of Agricultural Herbicide Atrazine in Water, Foods, and Human Urine Samples, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2017, pp. 9-13.
Concilla, A., Liu, H., "Changes in Gene Expression Linked to Adverse Health Effects of Herbicide Atrazine," International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine, 2017. 6: p. 17-20.
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. 1995; Available from: https://nepis.epa.gov/.
CDC ToxGuide for Atrazine Available from: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxguides/toxguide-153.pdf.
Cragin, L. A., J. S. Kesner, A. M. Bachand, D. B. Barr, J. W. Meadows, E. F. Krieg, and J. S. Reif, "Menstrual cycle characteristics and reproductive hormone levels in women exposed to atrazine in drinking water," Environ Res, 2011. 111 (8): p. 1293-301.
Baldwin, A. K., S. R. Corsi, L. A. De Cicco, P. L. Lenaker, M. A. Lutz, D. J. Sullivan, and K. D. Richards, "Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity," Sci Total Environ, 2016. 554-555: p. 42-52.
Komsky-Elbaz, A. and Z. Roth, "Effect of the herbicide atrazine and its metabolite DACT on bovine sperm quality," Reprod Toxicol, 2016. 67: p. 15-25.
Peighambarzadeh, S., S. Safi, S. Shahtaheri, M. Javanbakht, and A. Rahimi Forushani, "Presence of atrazine in the biological samples of cattle and its consequence adversity in human health," Iran J Public Health, 2011. 40 (4): p. 112-21.
Campbell, J. L., Jr., M. E. Andersen, P. M. Hinderliter, K. D. Yi, T. P. Pastoor, C. B. Breckenridge, and H. J. Clewell, 3rd, "PBPK Model for Atrazine and Its Chlorotriazine Metabolites in Rat and Human," Toxicol Sci, 2016. 150 (2): p. 441-53.
Forster, G. M., D. G. Brown, G. P. Dooley, R. L. Page, and E. P. Ryan, "Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in urine of healthy adult companion dogs," Environ Sci Technol, 2014. 48 (24): p. 14677-85.
Ross, M. K. and N. M. Filipov, "Determination of atrazine and its metabolites in mouse urine and plasma by LC-MS analysis," Anal Biochem, 2006. 351 (2): p. 161-73.
Perry, M. J., D. C. Christiani, J. Mathew, D. Degenhardt, J. Tortorelli, J. Strauss, and W. C. Sonzogni, "Urinalysis of atrazine exposure in farm pesticide applicators," Toxicol Ind Health, 2000. 16 (7-8): p. 285-90.
Curwin, B. D., M. J. Hein, W. T. Sanderson, D. B. Barr, D. Heederik, S. J. Reynolds, E. M. Ward, and M. C. Alavanja, "Urinary and hand wipe pesticide levels among farmers and nonfarmers in Iowa," J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol, 2005. 15 (6): p. 500-8.
Bakke, B., A. J. De Roos, D. B. Barr, P. A. Stewart, A. Blair, L. B. Freeman, C. F. Lynch, R. H. Allen, M. C. Alavanja, and R. Vermeulen, "Exposure to atrazine and selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers during a growing season," J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol, 2009. 19 (6): p. 544-54.
Mendas, G., M. Vuletic, N. Galic, and V. Drevenkar, "Urinary metabolites as biomarkers of human exposure to atrazine: atrazine mercapturate in agricultural workers," Toxicol Lett, 2012. 210 (2): p. 174-81.
Curwin, B. D., M. J. Hein, W. T. Sanderson, M. G. Nishioka, S. J. Reynolds, E. M. Ward, and M. C. Alavanja, "Pesticide contamination inside farm and nonfarm homes," J Occup Environ Hyg, 2005. 2 (7): p. 357-67.
Food And Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available from: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home.
Joshuva John, H. L., "unpublished research."
Dahjio, Y., J. J. Noubiap, M. Azabji-Kenfack, M. Essouma, G. E. Loni, A. E. Onana, M. Dehayem, A. Mvom, M. N. Tadjore, and E. Sobngwi, "Impact of a 12-week aerobic exercise training program on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of a group of type 2 diabetes Cameroonian women aged >/=50 years," Ann Transl Med, 2016. 4 (19): p. 364.
Adams, J. D., S. A. Kavouras, J. I. Robillard, C. N. Bardis, E. C. Johnson, M. S. Ganio, B. P. McDermott, and M. A. White, "Fluid Balance of Adolescent Swimmers During Training," J Strength Cond Res, 2016. 30 (3): p. 621-5.
Ramel, A., A. Arnarson, O. G. Geirsdottir, P. V. Jonsson, and I. Thorsdottir, "Glomerular filtration rate after a 12-wk resistance exercise program with post-exercise protein ingestion in community dwelling elderly," Nutrition, 2013. 29 (5): p. 719-23.
F, V. Z., A. Innerd, L. B. Azevedo, G. M. Whitford, and A. Maguire, "Effect of exercise on fluoride metabolism in adult humans: a pilot study," Sci Rep, 2015. 5: p. 16905.
Poortmans, J. R., B. Gulbis, E. De Bruyn, S. Baudry, and A. Carpentier, "Limitations of serum values to estimate glomerular filtration rate during exercise," Br J Sports Med, 2013. 47 (18): p. 1166-70.