International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2015, Pages: 317-330
Received: Sep. 29, 2015;
Accepted: Oct. 13, 2015;
Published: Nov. 17, 2015
Views 4680 Downloads 105
Bernard Mungoma Kuloba, Kenya Wildlife Service, Biodiversity Research and Monitoring, Nairobi, Kenya
Hein Van Gils, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands
Iris Van Duren, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands
Shadrack Muvui Muya, Department of Zoology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Shadrack Mumo Ngene, Kenya Wildlife Service, Parks and Reserves, Nairobi, Kenya
The cheetah is currently recognized by IUCN as a threatened species. Kenya is one of country with significant cheetah population in the world though it fundamental niche is not well known. Wildlife can live in an area only if basic resources such as food, water, and cover are present and if the species is adapted in ways that allow them to cope with the climatic extremes, selection involves several levels of discrimination and spatial scales and a number of potentially interacting factors. This study was to model cheetah fundamental niche using suitable environmental predictors and evaluates suitability of current protected area coverage in its conservation. Two types of model input data used were cheetah occurrence locations and a suite of environmental variables thought to have a direct physiological role in limiting the ability of the species to survive. The species occurrence records and environmental variables were entered into a MaxEnt model which uses maximum entropy algorithm to identify environmental conditions that are associated with species occurrence. Ideal fundamental niche for cheetah were found to be localities within an elevation range of 1600-2100 meters above sea level, receiving mean annual precipitation of 800 mm, with the warmest quarter of the year receiving 250 mm, the wettest month receiving 120 mm, precipitation of coldest quarter 10 mm and temperature seasonality ranges of 150°. Cheetah fundamental niche run across protected areas and for effective conservation, Results could be used to direct conservation effort go beyond parks and reserves by encouraging community conservancies and development of ecological corridors. Protected area planning could benefit too from these results.
Bernard Mungoma Kuloba,
Hein Van Gils,
Iris Van Duren,
Shadrack Muvui Muya,
Shadrack Mumo Ngene,
Modeling Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus Fundamental Niche in Kenya, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2015, pp. 317-330.
Araujo, M.B. & Williams, P.H. (2000). Selecting areas for species persistence using occurrence data. Biol. Conserv. 96, 331–345.
Baldwin, R. A. (2009), Use of Maximum Entropy Modeling in Wildlife Research, Entropy, 11, 854-866; doi: 10.3390/e11040854 www.mdpi.com/journal/entropy.
Bissett, C. & Bernard, R.T.F. (2007). Habitat selection and feeding ecology of the cheetah in thicket vegetation: is the cheetah a savanna specialist? J. Zool. (Lond.) 271, 310–317.
Cardillo, M., Purvis, A., Sechrest, W., Gittleman, J. L., Bielby, J. & Mace, G.M. (2004). Human populationdensit-y and extinction risk in the World’s carnivores. PLoS Biol. 2, 909–914.
Caro, T.M. (1994). Cheetahs of the Serengeti plains: group living in an asocial species. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Caro, T.M. & Collins, D.A. (1987).Ecological characteristics of territories of male cheetahs. J. Zool. (Lond.) 211, 89–105.
Caro, T. M. & Collins, D. A. 1987a Ecological characteristics of territories of male cheetahs (Acinonyxjubatus). J. Zool., Lond. 211, 89-105.
Chefaoui, R. M., Hortal, J. & Lobo, J. M. (2005) Potential distribution modelling, niche characterization and conservation status assessment using GIS tools: A case study of Iberian Copris species. Biological Conservation, 122, 327-338.
Durant, S. M. 1998. Competition refuges and coexistence: an example from Serengeti carnivores. Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 370-386.
Elith J, Steven J. Phillips, Trevor Hastie, Miroslav Dudi´k, Yung En Chee and Colin J. Yates, (2011) A statistical explanation of MaxEnt for ecologists, Diversity and Distributions, 17, 43–57.
Guisan, A. & Zimmermann, N. E. (2000) Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecological Modelling, 135, 147-186.
Guisan A, Thuiller W (2005) Predicting species distribution: offering more than simple habitat models. Ecol Lett 8: 993–1009.
Gros P, 1997 Status of the cheetah Acinonyxjubatus in Kenya: a field-interview assessment. Biological Conservation 85 (1998) 137-149.
Hamilton, P. H. (1986) Status of the cheetah in Kenya, with reference to sub-saharan Africa. Cats of the World: Biology, Conservation and Management (eds S. D. Miller & D. D. Everett). National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C..
Hamilton, P. 1981. The Leopard Pantherapardus and the cheetah Acynonixjubatus in Kenya. US Fish and Wildlife Service, African Leadership Foundaton and the Government of Kenya, Nairobi.
Hirzel, A. H., Hausser, J., Chessel, D. & Perrin, N. (2002) Ecological-niche factor analysis: How to compute habitat suitability maps without absence data? Ecology, 83, 2027 - 2036.
Jared A. Stabach, Nadine Laporte and William Olupot. (2009) Modeling habitat suitability for Grey Crowned-cranes (Balearicaregulorumgibbericeps) throughout Uganda International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation Vol. 1(5) pp. 177-186 Available online http://www.academicjournals.org/ijbc.
Pettorelli, N. A. Hilborn, F. Broekhuis & S. M. Durant (2009). Exploring habitat use by cheetahs using ecological niche factor analysis Journal of Zoology 277 141–148.
Pearce, J., and S. Ferrier. 2000. Evaluating the predictive performance of habitat models developed using logistic regression. Ecological Modelling 133: 225-245.
Stamps, J.A. & Swaisgood, R.R. (2007). Some place like home: experience, habitat selection and conservation biology. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 102, 392–409.
Urbina-Cardona, J. N. and Loyola R.D. 2008. Applying niche-based models to predict endangered-hylid potential distributions: are neotropical protected areas effective enough? Tropical Conservation Science Vol.1 (4):417-445. Available online: Hwww.tropicalconservationscience.orgH.
KWS. 2010. Kenya National Strategy for the Conservation of Cheetahs and Wild Dogs.in Research, editor. Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi.
Lack, D. (1933) Habitat selection in birds. With special reference to the effects of afforestation on the Breckland avifauna. The Journal of Animal Ecology, 2, 239-262.
Laurenson, M. K. (1995) Implications of high offspring mortality for cheetah population dynamics.
Serengeti II: Dynamics, management and conservation of an ecosystem (eds A. R. E. Sinclair & P. Arcese). The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Myers, N. 1975.The Cheetah Acinonyxjubatus in Africa. IUCN Monograph, IUCN Morges Switzerland no. 4.
M. S. Wisz, R. J. Hijmans , J. Li, A. T. Peterson, C. H. Graham, A. Guisan, (2008) Effects of sample size on the performance of species distribution models Diversity and Distributions, (Diversity Distrib.) 14, 763–773.
Morrison, M. L., Marcot, B. G. & Mannan, R. W. (2006) Wildlife-habitat relationships: concepts and applications, 3rd edn. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
Phillips, S. J. et al. (2005) Maxent software for species distribution modeling. http://www.cs.princeton.edu/_schapire/maxent/_.
Richard G. Pearson, Christopher J. Raxworthy, Miguel Nakamura and A. Townsend Peterson (2007) Predicting species distributions from small numbers of occurrence records: a test case using cryptic geckos in Madagascar. Journal of Biogeography (J. Biogeogr.) 34, 102–117.
Rotenberry, J. T., Preston, K. L. & Knick, S. T. (2006) GIS-based niche modeling for mapping species' habitat. Ecology, 87, 1458-1464.
Sunil Kumar and Thomas J. Stohlgren. (2009) Maxent modeling for predicting suitable habitat for threatened and endangered tree Canacomyricamonticola in New Caledonia. Journal of Ecology and Natural Environment Vol. 1(4), pp. 094-098, Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/JENE.
Tomoko Doko, Hiromichi Fukui, Andre Kooiman, A.G. Toxopeus, Tomohiro Ichinose, Wenbo Chene, A.K. Skidmore. (2011) Identifying habitat patches and potential ecological corridors for remnant Asiatic black bear (Ursusthibetanusjaponicus) populations in Japan. Ecological Modelling 222 748–761.
Wilting A, Cord A, Hearn AJ, Hesse D, Mohamed A, et al. (2010) Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurusplaniceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid. PLoS ONE 5(3): e9612. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009612.
Woodroffe, R. & Ginsberg, J.R. (1998). Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science 280, 2126–2128 WRI. 2011. World Resources Institute. http://www.wri.org/.