Incidence of Emerging and Innovative Climate Change Adaptation Practices for Smallholder Farmers' in Nachingwea District, Southern Tanzania
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2015, Pages: 304-311
Received: Oct. 17, 2015; Accepted: Oct. 26, 2015; Published: Nov. 13, 2015
Views 3548      Downloads 66
Josephat Alexander Saria, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environmental Studies, the Open University of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Article Tools
Follow on us
In view of the spatial hierarchical order of factors influencing farmers’ decision making on climate change adaptation we should note that adaptation occurs at two main levels; farm level that focuses on micro-level analysis of farmer decision making and national, or macro-level factors that are concerned about agricultural production at the national and regional scales. The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors determining smallholder farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change, in Nachingwea district and toward sustainable management of their agricultural production and livelihood. Both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data were collected by use of structured questionnaires, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Based on the research plan, a total of 250 individual households were randomly selected and interviewed. About 92% of smallholder farmers in the study area indicated climate change is really happening. To smallholder farmers the concept “climate change” was associated with variability in weather conditions such as rainfall inconsistency and unpredictability over years. At the community level the effects of climate change and variability were revealed through food shortages as reported by 52.8% of the respondents, infestation of uncommon pests (53.5%), too much rainfall (43.2%), diminishing rainfall/drought (64.6%) and human diseases (32.5%). The findings of this study have important policy implications for the promotion of climate change adaptation strategies at the farm level in semi‐arid regions, coastal area and elsewhere. To facilitate farmer's investment in long‐term adaptation options, government should ensure that tenure arrangements, even in communal smallholder farming system in the country, are secured.
Adaptation, Climate Change, Perception, Smallholder Farmers, Nachingwea
To cite this article
Josephat Alexander Saria, Incidence of Emerging and Innovative Climate Change Adaptation Practices for Smallholder Farmers' in Nachingwea District, Southern Tanzania, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015, pp. 304-311. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20150305.20
Copyright © 2015 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Waters, T. (2007), The Persistence of Subsistence Agriculture: Life Beneath the Level of the Marketplace, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Aune, J. (2012), Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment: Introduction to Agricultural Systems in Developing Countries, Accessed on July 13, 2014.
Miracle, M. P. (1968), Subsistence Agriculture: Analytical Problems and Alternative Concepts, American Journal of Agricultural Economics 292-310.
Cornish, G. A.(1998),Modern Irrigation Technologies for Smallholders in Developing Countries Intermediate Technology, London, UK.
URT (2014), Agriculture Climate Resilience Plan 2014 – 2019, Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives.
URT (2011a), SAGCOT Investment Blueprint.
URT (2011b), National Strategy on Gender and Climate Change.
URT (2011c), Tanzanaia Agriculture and Food Security Action Plan, 2011-12 to 2020-21.
URT (2011d) Tanzania Agriculture and Food Security Investment Plan (TAFSIP) 2011-12 to 2020 The United Republic of Tanzania.
URT (2010), National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty – II. Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs.
FAO, IFAD, WFP (2013), The State of Food Insecurity in the World, The Multiple Dimentions of Food Security, United Nations, Rome.
IPCC (2007), Climate Change: Synthesis Report: The Fourth Assessment Report: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Arndt, C., Farmer, W., Strzepek K. and Thurlow, J. (2011), Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security in Tanzania. United Nations University – World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER).
Morton, J. F. (2007), The impacts of Climate Change on Smallholder and Subsistence Agriculture, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA104, 19680–19685.
Hertel, T. W. and Rosch, S. D. (2010), Climate Change, Agriculture and Poverty, Policy Research Working Paper 5468. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Coulibaly, Y. J., Kundhlande, G. Amosi, N., Tall A., Kaur H., and Hansen, J. (2015), What Climate Services do Farmers and Pastoralists Need in Tanzania? Baseline Study for the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa. CCAFS Working Paper no. 110. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark. Available online at:
Taneja, G., Pal B. D., Joshi P. K., Aggarwal P. K. and Tyagi N. K.. (2014), Farmers’ Preferences for Climate-Smart Agriculture: An Assessment in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Discussion Paper 01337. on May, 21st, 2015.
Sakamoto, K. (2003), Social Development, Culture and Participation: Towards Theorizing Endogenous Development in Tanzania; PhD Thesis, Waseda University.
URT (2011e), Strategic Interventions on Priority Irrigation Schemes and Rainfed Crops, Ministry of Agriculture Food Security and Cooperatives, Baseline Study.
Gwambene, B. (2011), Climate Change and Variability Adaptation Strategies: Implication of Adaptation Strategies on Land Resources in Rungwe District, Tanzania. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken Deutschland.
Harvey, C. A., Rakotobe, Z. L., Rao, N. S., Dave, R., Razafimahatratra, H., R. Hasinandrianina R., Rajaofara, H. and MacKinnon, J. L. (2015), Extreme Vulnerability of Smallholder Farmers to Agricultural Risks and Climate Change in Madagascar, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 369:20130089.
Kangalawe, R.Y.M, Yanda, P.Z. and Sigalla, R.J. (2005). Climatic and Socio-economic Influences on Malaria and Cholera Risks in the Lake Victoria Region of Tanzania, AIACC Working Paper No. 12, available at: http//
Orindi, V. and Murray, L. (2005), Adapting to Climate Change in East Africa: A Strategic Approach,
Lyimo, J.G. and Kangalawe. R. Y. M. (2010), Vulnerability and Adaptive Strategies to the Impact of Climate Change and Variability: The Case of Rural Households in Semi-arid Tanzania. Environmental Economics1(2): 89–97.
Kangalawe, R. Y. M. (2012), Food Security and Health in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Evaluate the Impact of Climate Change and other Stress Factors. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 6(1), 50-66.
Pardey P. G. and Beintema, N. (2006) Agricultural Research: A Growing Global Divide? IFPRI, Washington, DC.
Pardey, P. G. and Beintema, N. M. (2007), Slow Magic: Agricultural R&D A Century after Mendel, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186