Cancer Risk due to Radionuclides Concentration in Tin Ores and Sediments at Barkin-Ladi, Plateau State, North Central, Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2015, Pages: 260-264
Received: Sep. 16, 2015; Accepted: Sep. 29, 2015; Published: Oct. 20, 2015
Views 3327      Downloads 71
Authors
Masok Felix Bitrus, Department of Applied Physics and Engineering Mathematic, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Physics, Plateau State University, Bokkos, Nigeria
Ike-Ogbonna , Department of Remedial Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Margaret Igeoma, Department of Remedial Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Dawam , Department of Remedial Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Robert Rangmou, Department of Remedial Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Jwanbot , Department of Physics, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Daniel Ibrahim, Department of Physics, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Yenle , Department of Environmental Health, College of Health Technology, Zawan, Nigeria
Nandi Michael, Department of Environmental Health, College of Health Technology, Zawan, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The specific activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in soil samples of abandoned tin ore and sediment from tin mining areas in Barkin-ladi were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry system using Sodium Iodide [NaI(Tl)] detector. Radiological hazard assessments due to these natural radionuclides were carried out. The aim was to assess the associated lifetime cancer risk owing to inhalation of the short life Radon gas from the tin ore and sediments by the inhabitants of this area after 70 years of exposure. The calculated activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the collected ore samples were 275.44 ± 46.14, 239.95 ± 30.82 and 778.78 ± 29.30 Bqkg-1 respectively while those of the sediment samples were 1608.25 ± 55.60, 759.62 ± 47.95 and 4861.82 ±48.78 Bqkg-1 respectively. However, the mean absorbed dose rate in ores (629.86 nGyh-1) and in sediments (3612.05 nGyh-1), the mean radium equivalent in ores (1374Bqkg-1) and in sediments (7835.88 Bqkg-1) and the mean annual effective dose rate in ores (0.77mSvy-1) and in sediments (4.43mSvy-1) were all found to be higher than the recommended global average values of 59nGy-1, 370Bgkg-1 and 0.07mSvy-1 correspondingly. The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) value obtained in this study for the ores samples ranges from 0.0026 to 0.0473 with an average of 0.0107 while the ELCR value in sediments samples was found to range from 0.3205 to 0.0036 with an average of 0.0620. Although the study reveals an average excess lifetime cancer risk value to be more in the sediment samples compare to ore samples, the excess lifetime cancer value within all the sample locations were above the world average value of 0.00029. Therefore, the present study reveals a lifetime cancer risk to the general public within this study area thus precaution need to be taken by ensuring inhabitants live in well ventilated houses since no level of radioactivity is harmless.
Keywords
Specific Activities, Excess Lifetime Cancer, Tin Ore and Sediments, Annual Effective Dose
To cite this article
Masok Felix Bitrus, Ike-Ogbonna , Margaret Igeoma, Dawam , Robert Rangmou, Jwanbot , Daniel Ibrahim, Yenle , Nandi Michael, Cancer Risk due to Radionuclides Concentration in Tin Ores and Sediments at Barkin-Ladi, Plateau State, North Central, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015, pp. 260-264. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20150305.13
References
[1]
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, 1996): Radiation safety, Regulation for the safe transport of radioactive material. IAEA Division of public information, 96-00725 IAEA/PI/A47E.
[2]
Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA, 2007): United States. Ionizing radiation fact book, EPA. Office of radiation and indoor air. EPA-402-F-06-061.
[3]
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, 2012): A review of human carcinogens; radiation. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to human, Vol. 100 D.
[4]
Innocent, A. J., Onimisi, M. Y., & Jonah, S.A. (2013): Evaluation of naturally occurring radionuclide materials in soil sample collected from some mining sites in Zamfara State, Nigeria. British Journal of applied Science & Technology, 3(4), 684-692.
[5]
Buchaman, M. S., Macleod, W. N. and Turner, D. C. (1971). The geology of Jos Plateau. Bulletin Geology survey of Nigeria, 2(32)
[6]
Onuoha, K. M. (1992). The boom and burst in Nigeria’s solid mineral subsector. Tin and columbite case histories. Journal of mining and geology 28(2), 353-357.
[7]
Hush, J. B., Spoor, N. I., (1973): Data on man. In: Hodge, H.C., et al. (Eds), Hand book of experimental pharmacology. Uranium, Platonium, Plutonium, Transplutonic elements springer-verlag, Berlin. 36, 197-240.
[8]
United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000): Radiation sources and effects of ionizing radiation, New York, USA: United Nations, Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation to the General Assembly.
[9]
Udo, R. K (1970): Geological regions of Nigeria. Published by Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.
[10]
Masok, F. B., Masiteng, P. L., & Jwanbot, I. D (2015). Natural radioactivity concentrationand effective dose rate from tin mining dumpsites in Rayfield, Nigeria. Journal of environment and earth science 5(12), 51-55.
[11]
Odumo, O. B., Mustapha, A. O., Patel, J. P & Angeyo H. K (2011): Radiological survey and assessment of associated activity concentration of the naturally occurring radioactive materials in Migori artisanal gold mining belt of Southern Nyanza, Kenya. Applied Radiation and isotopes (69) 912-916.
[12]
National Nuclear Regulator, (2007). Radiological Imapact of the mining activities to the public in the Wonderfontein catchment area. Repot No. TR-RRD-07-2006.
[13]
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-90, 1991): Recommendations of the International Commission on radiological Protection. Annals of the ICRP, 21, 1-3.
[14]
United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 1982). Ionizing radiation; Sources and biological effects. Report of General Assembly, with Annexes, United Nation, New York.
[15]
Yu, K. N., & Gau, Z. J., Stoks, M. J., & Young, E. C. (1992): Assessment of natural radiation dose committed to the Hong Kong people. Journal of Radioactivity, 17, 931
[16]
United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 1993). Radiation Exposure from natural sources of radiation. New York; United Nation.
[17]
Taskin, H., Karavus, M., Ay, P., Topuzoglu, A., Hindiroglu, S., & Karahan, G. (2009): Radilonuclides concentrations in soil and lifetime cancer risk due to the gamma radilactivity in Kirklareli, Turkey. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, (100) 49-53.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186